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    จากวิกิพีเดีย สารานุกรมเสรี

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    References


    อื่น ๆ[แก้]

    ฝ่ายสัมพันธมิตรในสงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง

    1939–1945
    WWII.png




    สถานะพันธมิตรทางการทหาร
    ยุคประวัติศาสตร์สงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง
    Feb 1921
    Aug 1939
    Sep 1939 – Jun 1940
    Jun 1941
    Jul 1941
    Aug 1941
    Jan 1942
    May 1942
    Nov–Dec 1943
    1–15 Jul 1944
    4–11 Feb 1945
    Apr–Jun 1945
    Jul–Aug 1945
    Footnotes
      1. Edvard Beneš, president of the First Czechoslovak Republic, fled the country after the 1938 Munich Agreement saw the Sudetenland-region annexed by Germany. In 1939 a German sponsored Slovak Republic seceded from the post-Munich Second Czechoslovak Republic, providing justification for the establishment of a German protectorate over the remaining Czech lands (the rump Carpathian Ruthenia-region being annexed by Hungary). Following the outbreak of war later the same year, Beneš, in his exile, formed a Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee which after some months of negotiations regarding its legitimacy became regarded as the Czechoslovak government-in-exile by the Allies.
      2. France declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, two days after the German invasion of Poland. It was a member of the Allies until its defeat in the German invasion of France in June 1940. Unlike the other governments-in-exile in London, which were legitimate governments that had escaped their respective countries and continued the fight, France had surrendered to the Axis. The "Free French Forces" was a section of the French army who refused to recognize the armistice and continued to fight with the Allies. They worked towards France being seen and treated as a major allied power, as opposed to a defeated and then liberated nation. They struggled with legitimacy vis-a-vis the German client state "Vichy France", which was the internationally recognized government of France even among the Allies. A National Liberation Committee was formed by the Free French after the gradual liberation of Vichy colonial territory, which led to the full German occupation of Vichy France in 1942. This started a shift in allied policy from trying to improve relations with the Vichy Regime into full support to what was now the Provisional Government of the French Republic.
      3. จักรวรรดิเอธิโอเปียถูกรุกรานโดยอิตาลีในวันที่ 3 ตุลาคม ค.ศ. 1935 On 2 May 1936, Emperor Haile Selassie I fled into exile, just before the Italian occupation on 7 May. After the outbreak of World War II, the United Kingdom recognized Haile Selassie as the Emperor of Ethiopia in July 1940 and his Ethiopian exile government cooperated with the British during their invasion of Italian East Africa in 1941. Through the invasion Haile Selassie returned to Ethiopia on 18 January, with the liberation of the country being completed by November the same year.
      4. จีนประกาศสงครามต่อญี่ปุ่นมาตั้งแต่ดือนกรกฎาคม ค.ศ. 1937 แล้วประกาศสงครามต่อญี่ปุ่น, เยอรมนี และอิตาลี และเข้าร่วมฝ่ายสัมพันธมิตรในเดือนธันวาคม ค.ศ. 1941 หลังการโจมตีเพิร์ลฮาร์เบอร์

    {{Infobox former country | conventional_long_name = สหพันธ์สาธารณรัฐสังคมนิยม
    โซเวียตรัสเซีย
    Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика
    Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika

    การเบียดเบียนชาวโซโรอัสเตอร์ (persecution of Zoroastrians)[แก้]

    มีการบันทึกถึงการเบียดเบียนศาสนาโซโรอัสเตอร์มาตลอดทั้งประวัติศาสตร์ศาสนาโซโรอัสเตอร์ ศาสนาของชาวอิหร่าน การเบียดเบียนขนานใหญ่ครั้งสำคัญเกิดขึ้นหลังจุดเริ่มต้นของศาสนาอิสลามในคริสต์ศตวรรษที่ 7 ทั้งในระหว่างและหลังการพิชิตเปอร์เซียโดยมุสลิมชาวอาหรับ การเลือกปฏิบัติและการล่วงละเมิดต่อชาวโซโรอัสเตอร์เกิดทั้งในรูปแบบบังคับเปลี่ยนศาสนาและใช้ความรุนแรงขนาดย่อม มีบันทึกถึงมุสลิมที่เข้ามาในภูมิภาคนี้หลังถูกผนวกเข้ากับรัฐเคาะลีฟะฮ์รอชิดีนว่าได้ทำลายวิหารโซโรอัสเตอร์ และชาวโซโรอัสเตอร์ที่อาศัยในบริเวณที่อยู่ภายใต้การปกครองของมุสลิมจะต้องจ่ายภาษีที่มีชื่อว่าญิซยะฮ์[1]

    มีการสร้างมัสยิดทับวิหารโซโรอัสเตอร์ที่ถูกทำลาย และห้องสมุดเปอร์เซียถูกเผาหลายแห่ง Gradually, an increasing number of laws were passed by the Rashidun Caliphate which regulated Zoroastrian behaviour and limited their ability to participate in society. Over time, the persecution of Zoroastrians by Muslims became increasingly common and widespread, and the religion consequently began to decline.[1] As the process of Islamization was initiated under Muslim rule, many Zoroastrians fled east from Persia to India, where they were given refuge.

    มีชาวโซโรอัสเตอร์จำนวนมากเข้ารับอิสลามเพื่อหลีกเลี่ยงการเลือกปฏิบัติและผลของการเป็นพลเมืองขั้นที่สองในรัฐเคาะลีฟะฮ์ หลังจากนั้น ลูก ๆ ของพวกเขาจะถูกส่งไปยังโรงเรียนสอนศาสนาอิสลามเพื่อเรียนรู้ภาษาอาหรับและศึกษาอัลกุรอานกับคำสอนศาสนาในเรื่องอื่น ๆ กระบวนการนี้มีส่วนทำให้ศาสนาโซโรอัสเตอรเสื่อมถอย อย่างไรก็ตาม ในสมัยจักรวรรดิซามานิด which was composed of Iranians who had converted from Zoroastrianism to Sunni Islam, the Persian language re-emerged significantly and flourished; this period marked the beginning of the Iranian Intermezzo. On occasion, the elite Zoroastrian clergy of the time has been recorded as having assisted Muslims in attacks against those whom they deemed to be heretics.[1]

    การเบียดเบียนโดยมุสลิม[แก้]

    การพิชิตของอิสลาม[แก้]

    ดูบทความหลักที่: การพิชิตดินแดนโดยมุสลิม

    ก่อนการรุกรานของชาวอาหรับและการพิชิตของมุสลิม เปอร์เซีย (modern-day Iran) ในช่วงกลางคริสต์ศตวรรษที่ 7 เคยเป็นรัฐอิสระทางการเมืองที่กินพื้นที่ตั้งแต่เมโสโปเตเมียถึงแม่น้ำสินธุและส่วนใหญ่นับถือศาสนาโซโรอัสเตอร์[2][3][4] Zoroastrianism was the official state religion of four pre-Islamic Persian empires,[5] the last being the Sassanian empire that passed a decree solidifying this in 224 CE.[3][6] The Arab invasion abruptly brought to an end the religious domination of Zoroastrianism in Persia and instituted Islam as the official religion of the state.[7][8][9]

    Yemen's Zoroastrians who had the jizya imposed on them after being conquered by Muhammad are mentioned by the Islamic historian al-Baladhuri.[10]

    หลังการพิชิตจักรวรรดิเปอร์เซีย ชาวโซโรอัสเตอร์ได้รับสถานะษิมมีและ subjected to persecutions; discrimination and harassment began in the form of sparse violence.[11] Those paying Jizya were subjected to insults and humiliation by the tax collectors.[12][13][14] ชาวโซโรอัสเตอร์ที่ถูกจับเป็นทาสในช่วงสงครามจะกลายเป็นไทถ้าพวกเขาเข้ารับอิสลาม[12]

    Many fire temples, with their four axial arch openings, were usually turned into mosques simply by setting a mihrab (prayer niche) on the place of the arch nearest to qibla (the direction of Mecca). Zoroastrian temples converted into mosques in such a manner could be found in Bukhara, as well as in and near Istakhr and other Persian cities.[15][ต้องการอ้างอิงเต็มรูปแบบ] Urban areas where Arab governors made their quarters were most vulnerable to such religious persecution, great fire temples were turned into mosques, and the citizens were forced to conform or flee.[16] Many libraries were burnt and much cultural heritage was lost.[17]

    Gradually there were increased number of laws regulating Zoroastrian behavior, limiting their ability to participate in society, and made life difficult for the Zoroastrians in the hope that they would convert to Islam.[17] Over time, persecution of Zoroastrians became more common and widespread, and the number of believers decreased significantly. Many converted, some superficially, to escape the systematic abuse and discrimination by the law of the land.[12] Others accepted Islam because their employment in industrial and artisan work would, according to Zoroastrian dogma, make them impure as their work involved defiling fire.[18] According to Thomas Walker Arnold, Muslim missionaries did not encounter difficulty in explaining Islamic tenets to Zoroastrians, as there were many similarities between the faiths. According to Arnold, for the Persian, he would meet Ahura Mazda and Ahriman under the names of Allah and Iblis.[18]

    Once a Zoroastrian family converted to Islam, the children had to go to Muslim religion school and learn Arabic and the teachings of the Quran and these children lost their Zoroastrian identity.[12] These factors continued to contribute to increasing rates of conversion from Zoroastrianism to Islam.[19] A Persian scholar commented, "Why so many had to die or suffer? Because one side was determined to impose his religion upon the other who could not understand."[20]

    อย่างไรก็ตาม เซอร์ ทอมัส วอล์กเกอร์ อาร์โนลด์ (Sir Thomas Walker Arnold) ตั้งข้อสงสัยว่ารายงานการบังคับเปลี่ยนศาสนาของชาวโซโรอัสเตอร์ทั้งหมด โดยยกตัวอย่างอ้างอิงความอดกลั้นหลายรายงานของขุนศึกมุสลิมว่า "in the face of such facts, it is surely impossible to attribute the decay of Zoroastrianism entirely to violent conversions made by the Muslim conquerors".[21] Arnold suggests that some of the conversions of the former-Zoroastrians were actually sincere citing the similarities between the two religions as a motivation for the conversions.[21] Stepaniants also (like Arnold) declares that some historians have said that some of the conversions to Islam were sincere citing the fact that Islam offered a broader door of brotherhood, unlike the restrictive criteria of Zoroastrianism.[22] Nevertheless, Sir Thomas Arnold does acknowledge that the persecution of Zoroastrians did take place later on.[23] Stepaniants states that many persecutions took place during the reign of the Abbasids, and around that time was when the Parsi exodus took place.[24] But regardless, both Arnold and Stepaniants say that the Islam is not to blamed entirely for the decline of Zoroastrianism.[25][21] Furthermore, the population of the city of Nishapur, even after the event of conquest (despite conversions to Islam taking place almost immediately) there still remained sizeable Zoroastrian populations, along with the Jews and Nestorian Christians as well.[26] Fred Donner says that the northern were hardly penetrated by the "believers" for a century or the Iranian nobility who reside in that area made terms with the believers winning virtually complete autonomy over the region in return of a tribute-tax or jizyah. Donner also acknowledges that Zoroastrians continued to exist in large numbers even after the rise of Islam in these regions.[27]

    การเบียดเบียนโดยกลุ่มเดียวกัน[แก้]

    ข้อมูลเพิ่มเติม: ลัทธิแมสแดก

    เจ้าขุนโซโรอัสเตอร์มองแมสแดกเป็นพวกนอกรีต และผู้ติดตามของเขาถูกผู้นำซาเซเนียนที่นับถือศาสนาโซโรอัสเตอร์เบียดเบียน The Sassanian ruler Khosrau I launched a campaign against the Mazdakis in 524 or 528, culminating in a massacre which killed most of them, including Mazdak himself and restored orthodox Zoroastrianism as the state religion.[28]

    Various accounts specify the way of death: e.g. the Shahnameh states that the three thousand Mazdakis were buried alive with the feet upwards in order to present Mazdak with the spectacle of a "human garden", whereas Mazdak himself was hanged upside down and shot with countless arrows; other stories specify other torturous methods of execution. In any case, Anushiravan then proceeded to implement his own far-reaching social and administrative reforms.[29] Mazdakism almost disappeared after the massacre.[30] Later, there were instances in which Zoroastrian clergy were assisted by Muslims against Zoroastrians whom the Zoroastrian clergy considered to be heretics or separatists.[1]

    การเบียดเบียนโดยชาวคริสต์[แก้]

    แมรี บอยซ์ (Mary Boyce) รายงานว่า ชาวโซโรอัสเตอร์ที่อยู่ภายใต้การปกครองของชาวคริสต์ในเอเชียไมเนอร์ประสบกับความยากลำบาก[31] notably during the long conflict between the Roman Empire and Persia. Christians living in Sassanian-held territory were noted to have destroyed many fire-temples and Zoroastrian places of worship.[32] Christian priests deliberately extinguished the sacred fire of the Zoroastrians and characterized adherents as "followers of the wicked Zardusht (Zoroaster), serving false gods and the natural elements."[32]

    อ้างอิง[แก้]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Houtsma 1936, p. 100, Volume 2
    2. Lapidus 2002, p. 6
    3. 3.0 3.1 Khanbaghi 2006, p. 6
    4. Khanbaghi 2006, p. 15
    5. Sanasarian 2000, p. 48
    6. Stepaniants 2002, p. 1
    7. Khanbaghi 2006, p. 17
    8. Jackson 1906, p. 27
    9. Bleeker & Widengren 1971, p. 212
    10. Lecker, Michael (January 1998). Jews and Arabs in pre-Islamic Arabia. p. 20. ISBN 9780860787846.
    11. Stepaniants 2002, p. 163
    12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Boyce 2001, p. 148
    13. Lambton 1981, p. 205
    14. Meri & Bacharach 2006, p. 878
    15. Hillenbrand
    16. Boyce 2001, p. 147
    17. 17.0 17.1 "Under Persian rule". BBC. สืบค้นเมื่อ 16 December 2009.
    18. 18.0 18.1 Arnold 1896, pp. 170–180
    19. Choksy 1987, pp. 28–30
    20. Shojaeddin Shaffa, p. 443
    21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Arnold 1896,The Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith, pp. 177-180
    22. Marietta Stepaniants, Philosophy East and West Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 2002), pp. 164-165
    23. Arnold 1896,The Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith, pp. 179
    24. Marietta Stepaniants, Philosophy East and West Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 2002), pp. 163
    25. Marietta Stepaniants, Philosophy East and West Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 2002), pp. 159
    26. Bulliet 1972, The Patricians of Nishapur, pp. 15
    27. Donner 2010, Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam, pages 110–111
    28. Wherry 1896, p. 66
    29. Yarshater, p. 1022
    30. Houtsma 1936, p. 432, Volume 2
    31. Boyce 2001, p. 119
    32. 32.0 32.1 Nigosian 1993, p. 37

    บรรณานุกรม[แก้]

    จูเลียน (จักรพรรดิ) (Julian (emperor))[แก้]

    Waniosa Amedestir/ทดลองเขียน
    Grey coin depicting bearded man with diadem, facing right. The text around the edges reads D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, clockwise.
    Bronze coin of Julian from Antioch.
    Legend: d n Fl Cl Iulianus p f aug.
    Roman emperor
    Augustus3 November 361 – 26 June 363 (proclaimed in early 360)
    ก่อนหน้าConstantius II
    ถัดไปJovian
    Caesar6 November 355 – early 360
    คู่อภิเษกHelena (m. 355, died 360)
    พระนามเต็ม
    Flavius Claudius Julianus
    ราชวงศ์Constantinian
    พระราชบิดาJulius Constantius
    พระราชมารดาBasilina
    ประสูติ17 November 331
    Constantinople
    สวรรคต26 June 363 (aged 31)
    Frygium, Mesopotamia
    ฝังพระศพTarsus, then Church of the Holy Apostles
    ศาสนา

    Julian[i] (ละติน: Flavius Claudius Julianus; กรีก: Ἰουλιανός Iulianos; 17 November 331 – 26 June 363) was Roman emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.[4] His rejection of Christianity, and his promotion of Neoplatonic Hellenism in its place, caused him to be remembered as Julian the Apostate in Christian tradition.[5][6]

    Julian was a member of the Constantinian dynasty; his father Julius Constantius was a half-brother of Emperor Constantine the Great. After Constantine died in 337, his sons had many of their relatives executed to prevent rival claims to the throne. Julian's father was one of those murdered on their orders, but Julian and his half-brother Constantius Gallus were spared. The orphaned princes spent much of their lives under the control of their cousin, Emperor Constantius II.[7] However, Constantius II allowed Julian to freely pursue an education in the Greek-speaking east, to the result that Julian became unusually cultured for an emperor of his time.[8] In 354, the emperor executed Julian's brother Gallus. Julian himself was imprisoned, but he was spared at the request of Empress Eusebia. In 355, Constantius II summoned Julian to court and appointed him to rule Gaul. Despite his inexperience, Julian showed unexpected success in his new capacity, defeating and counterattacking Germanic raids across the Rhine and encouraging the ravaged provinces' return to prosperity.[7] In 360, he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers at Lutetia (Paris), sparking a civil war with Constantius. However, Constantius died before the two could face each other in battle, and named Julian as his successor.

    In 363, Julian embarked on an ambitious campaign against the Sasanian Empire. The campaign was initially successful, securing a victory outside Ctesiphon in Mesopotamia.[9] However, he did not attempt to besiege the capital. Julian instead moved into Persia's heartland, but he soon faced supply problems and was forced to retreat northwards while being ceaselessly harassed by Persian skirmishes. During the Battle of Samarra, Julian was mortally wounded under mysterious circumstances.[10][8] He was succeeded by Jovian, a senior officer in the imperial guard, who was obliged to cede territory, including Nisibis, in order to save the trapped Roman forces.[11]

    Julian was a man of unusually complex character: he was "the military commander, the theosophist, the social reformer, and the man of letters".[12] He was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire, and he believed that it was necessary to restore the Empire's ancient Roman values and traditions in order to save it from dissolution.[13] He purged the top-heavy state bureaucracy, and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the expense of Christianity. His attempt to build a Third Temple in Jerusalem was probably intended to harm Christianity rather than please Jews.[8] Julian also forbade the Christians from teaching and learning classical texts.[14]

    หมายเหตุ[แก้]

    1. Rarely Julian II. The designation "Julian I" is then applied either to the emperor Didius Julianus (ค. 193),[1] or to the usurper Sabinus Julianus (ค. 283–285).[2] Even more rarely called Julian III, with Didius Julianus as "Julian I" and Sabinus Julianus as "Julian II".[3]

    อ้างอิง[แก้]

    อ้างอิง[แก้]

    1. David Sear, Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume 5 (London: Spink, 2014), p. 267.
    2. D. Margetić, "Antoniani of Julian of Pannonia", Num. vijesti, broj 63., 2010
    3. Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, "Evil Emperors", 2019
    4. Grant, Michael (1980). Greek and Latin authors, 800 B.C.–A.D. 1000, Part 1000. H. W. Wilson Co. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-8242-0640-6. JULIAN THE APOSTATE (Flavius Claudius Julianus), Roman emperor and Greek writer, was born at Constantinople in ad 332 and died in 363.
    5. Gibbon, Edward. "Chapter 23". The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
    6. A Companion to Julian the Apostate (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Brill. 20 January 2020. ISBN 978-90-04-41631-4.
    7. 7.0 7.1 Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, "Julian the Apostate", p. 839
    8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Julian". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. สืบค้นเมื่อ 23 August 2018.
    9. Phang et al. 2016, p. 998.
    10. "Ancient Rome: The reign of Julian". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. สืบค้นเมื่อ 23 August 2018.
    11. Potter, David (2009). Rome in the Ancient World - From Romulus to Justinian. Thames & Hudson. p. 289. ISBN 978-0500251522.
    12. Glanville Downey, "Julian the Apostate at Antioch", Church History, Vol. 8, No. 4 (December 1939), pp. 303–315. See p. 305.
    13. Athanassiadi, p. 88.
    14. Potter, David (2009). Rome in the Ancient World - From Romulus to Justinian. Thames & Hudson. p. 288. ISBN 978-0500251522.

    ข้อมูลสมัยโบราณ[แก้]

    ข้อมูลสมัยใหม่[แก้]

    • Athanassiadi, Polymnia (1992) [1981]. [[[:แม่แบบ:Googlebooks]] Julian: An Intellectual Biography]. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07763-X. {{cite book}}: ตรวจสอบค่า |url= (help)
    • Baker-Brian, Nicholas; Tougher, Shaun. (2012). Emperor and Author: The Writings of Julian the Apostate. The Classical Press of Wales. Swansea. ISBN 978-1-905125-50-0. http://www.classicalpressofwales.co.uk/emperor_author.htm
    • Bowersock, G.W. (1978). [[[:แม่แบบ:Googlebooks]] Julian the Apostate]. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-1262-X. {{cite book}}: ตรวจสอบค่า |url= (help)
    • Browning, Robert (1975). [[[:แม่แบบ:Googlebooks]] The Emperor Julian]. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-77029-2. {{cite book}}: ตรวจสอบค่า |url= (help)
    • Dodgeon, Michael H. & Samuel N.C. Lieu, The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 226–363, Routledge, London, 1991. ISBN 0-203-42534-0
    • Drinkwater, John F., The Alamanni and Rome 213–496 (Caracalla to Clovis), OUP Oxford 2007. ISBN 0-19-929568-9
    • Lascaratos, John and Dionysios Voros. 2000 Fatal Wounding of the Byzantine Emperor Julian the Apostate (361–363 A.D.): Approach to the Contribution of Ancient Surgery. World Journal of Surgery 24: 615–619
    • Murdoch, Adrian. The Last Pagan: Julian the Apostate and the Death of the Ancient World, Stroud, 2005, ISBN 0-7509-4048-4
    • Phang, Sara E.; Spence, Iain; Kelly, Douglas; Londey, Peter, บ.ก. (2016). Conflict in Ancient Greece and Rome: The Definitive Political, Social, and Military Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.
    • Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay AD 180–395, Routledge, New York, 2004. ISBN 0-415-10058-5
    • Ridley, R.T., "Notes on Julian's Persian Expedition (363)", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1973, pp. 317–330
    • Roberts, Walter E. & DiMaio, Michael (2002), "Julian the Apostate (360–363 A.D.)", De Imperatoribus Romanis
    • Smith, Rowland. Julian's gods: religion and philosophy in the thought and action of Julian the Apostate, London, 1995. ISBN 0-415-03487-6
    • Veyne, Paul. L'Empire Gréco-Romain. Seuil, Paris, 2005. ISBN 2-02-057798-4
    • Wiemer, Hans-Ulrich & Stefan Rebenich, บ.ก. (2020). [[[:แม่แบบ:Googlebooks]] A Companion to Julian the Apostate]. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-41456-3. {{cite book}}: ตรวจสอบค่า |url= (help)

    อ่านเพิ่ม[แก้]

    • García Ruiz, María Pilar, "Julian's Self-Representation in Coins and Texts." In Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire, Ed. D.W.P. Burgersdijk and A.J. Ross. Leiden. Brill. 2018. 204-233. ISBN 978-90-04-37089-0.
    • Gardner, Alice, Julian Philosopher and Emperor and the Last Struggle of Paganism Against Christianity, G.P. Putnam's Son, London, 1895. ISBN 0-404-58262-1 / ISBN 978-0-404-58262-3. Downloadable at Julian, philosopher and emperor.
    • Hunt, David. "Julian". In The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 13 (Averil Cameron & Peter Garnsey editors). CUP, Cambridge, 1998. ISBN 0-521-30200-5
    • Kettenhofen, Erich (2009). "JULIAN". JULIAN – Encyclopaedia Iranica. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XV, Facs. 3. pp. 242–247.
    • Lenski, Noel Emmanuel Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century AD University of California Press: London, 2003
    • Lieu, Samuel N.C. & Dominic Montserrat: editors, From Constantine to Julian: A Source History Routledge: New York, 1996. ISBN 0-203-42205-8
    • Neander, August, The Emperor Julian and His Generation, An Historical Picture, translated by G.V. Cox, John W. Parker, London, 1859. ISBN 0-217-34765-7 / ISBN 9780217347655. Downloadable at The Emperor Julian and his generation.
    • Rendall, Gerald Henry, The Emperor Julian: Paganism and Christianity with Genealogical, Chronological and Bibliographical Appendices, George Bell and Sons, London, 1879. ISBN 1-152-51929-8 / ISBN 9781152519299. Downloadable at The Emperor Julian.
    • Rohrbacher, David. Historians of Late Antiquity. Routledge: New York, 2002. ISBN 0-415-20459-3
    • Rosen, Klaus. Julian. Kaiser, Gott und Christenhasser. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart, 2006.

    แหล่งข้อมูลอื่น[แก้]

    พระเป็นเจ้าในศาสนาอับราฮัม (God in Abrahamic religions)[แก้]

    The concept of God in Abrahamic religions is centred on the dedicated worship of a singular supreme deity. The three major monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, alongside the Baháʼí Faith,[1] Samaritanism, Druze, and Rastafari,[1] are all regarded as Abrahamic religions due to their shared worship of the God (referred to as Yahweh in Hebrew and as Allah in Arabic) that these traditions say revealed himself to Abraham.[1] Abrahamic religions share the same distinguishing features:[2]

    The Abrahamic God in this sense is the conception of God that remains a common feature of all Abrahamic religions.[4] God is conceived of as one, eternal, omnipotent, omniscient, and the creator of the universe.[4] God is always referred to with masculine grammatical articles only,[4] and further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omnibenevolence and omnipresence. Proponents of Abrahamic faiths believe that God is also transcendent, meaning that he is outside of both space and time and therefore not subject to anything within his creation, but at the same time a personal God, involved, listening to prayer, and reacting to the actions of his creatures.

    Opinions differ among scholars of religion on whether Mormonism belongs within the traditions of Christianity or whether it amounts to a distinct Abrahamic religion.[5][6] The heterogenous Rastafari movement with roots in Jamaica is classified by some scholars as an international socio-religious movement, and by others as a separate Abrahamic religion or new religious movement.[7]

    References[แก้]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Abulafia, Anna Sapir (23 September 2019). "The Abrahamic religions". www.bl.uk. London: British Library. เก็บจากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 12 July 2020. สืบค้นเมื่อ 25 February 2021.
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Bremer, Thomas S. (2015). "Abrahamic religions". Formed From This Soil: An Introduction to the Diverse History of Religion in America. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-1-4051-8927-9. LCCN 2014030507. S2CID 127980793.
    3. Hughes, Aaron W. (2012). "What Are "Abrahamic Religions"?". Abrahamic Religions: On the Uses and Abuses of History. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 15–33. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199934645.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-993464-5. S2CID 157815976.
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Christiano, Kevin J.; Kivisto, Peter; Swatos, Jr., William H., บ.ก. (2015) [2002]. "Excursus on the History of Religions". Sociology of Religion: Contemporary Developments (3rd ed.). Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira Press. pp. 254–255. doi:10.2307/3512222. ISBN 978-1-4422-1691-4. JSTOR 3512222. LCCN 2001035412. S2CID 154932078.
    5. Shipps, Jan (2001). "Is Mormonism Christian? Reflections on a Complicated Question". ใน Eliason, Eric A. (บ.ก.). Mormons and Mormonism: An Introduction to an American World Religion. Choice Reviews Online. Vol. 39. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. pp. 76–98. doi:10.5860/choice.39-0892. ISBN 978-0-252-02609-6. S2CID 142892455.
    6. Mason, Patrick Q. (3 September 2015). "Mormonism". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.75. ISBN 978-0-19-934037-8. เก็บจากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 30 November 2018. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 May 2021.
    7. Chryssides, George D. (2001) [1999]. "Independent New Religions: Rastafarianism". Exploring New Religions. Issues in Contemporary Religion. London and New York: Continuum International. pp. 269–277. doi:10.2307/3712544. ISBN 978-0-8264-5959-6. JSTOR 3712544. OCLC 436090427. S2CID 143265918.

    Bibliography[แก้]

    External links[แก้]

    เดลีย์เมล[แก้]

    Daily Mail
    ไฟล์:Daily Mail 10 July 2021.png
    Daily Mail front page on 11 July 2021
    ประเภทDaily newspaper
    รูปแบบTabloid
    เจ้าของDaily Mail and General Trust
    ผู้ก่อตั้งAlfred Harmsworth and Harold Harmsworth
    ผู้จัดพิมพ์DMG Media
    บรรณาธิการGeordie Greig
    ก่อตั้ง4 พฤษภาคม 1896; 126 ปีก่อน (1896-05-04)
    ความเอนเอียงทางการเมืองRight-wing[1][2][3]
    ภาษาEnglish
    สำนักงานใหญ่Northcliffe House

    2 Derry Street

    London W8 5TT
    จำนวนพิมพ์1,134,184 (ตั้งแต่ February 2020)[4]
    ISSN0307-7578
    OCLC number16310567
    เว็บไซต์www.dailymail.co.uk

    The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market newspaper and online news source[5][6] published in London in a tabloid format. Founded in 1896, it is the United Kingdom's highest-circulated daily newspaper.[7] Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982, while Scottish and Irish editions of the daily paper were launched in 1947 and 2006 respectively. Content from the paper appears on the MailOnline website, although the website is managed separately and has its own editor.[8]

    The paper is owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust.[9] Jonathan Harmsworth, 4th Viscount Rothermere, a great-grandson of one of the original co-founders, is the current chairman and controlling shareholder of the Daily Mail and General Trust, while day-to-day editorial decisions for the newspaper are usually made by a team led by the editor, Geordie Greig, who succeeded Paul Dacre in September 2018.[10]

    A survey in 2014 found the average age of its readers was 58, and it had the lowest demographic for 15- to 44-year-olds among the major British dailies.[11] Uniquely for a British daily newspaper, it has a majority female readership, with women making up 52–55% of its readers.[12] It had an average daily circulation of 1,134,184 copies in February 2020.[13] Between April 2019 and March 2020 it had an average daily readership of approximately 2.180 million, of whom approximately 1.407 million were in the ABC1 demographic and .773 million in the C2DE demographic.[14] Its website has more than 218 million unique visitors per month.[15]

    The Daily Mail has won a number of awards, including receiving the National Newspaper of the Year award from The Press Awards eight times since 1995, winning again in 2019.[16] The Society of Editors selected it as the 'Daily Newspaper of the Year' for 2020.[17] It has also been noted for its unreliability and widely criticised for its printing of sensationalist and inaccurate scare stories of science and medical research,[18][19][20][21] and for instances of plagiarism and copyright infringement.[22][23][24][25] In February 2017, the Daily Mail became the first source to be deprecated as an "unreliable source" for use as a reference on the English Wikipedia.[26]

    Criticism[แก้]

    Reliability[แก้]

    The Daily Mail's medical and science journalism has been criticised by some doctors and scientists, accusing it of using minor studies to generate scare stories or being misleading.[21][20][27] In 2011, the Daily Mail published an article titled "Just ONE cannabis joint 'can cause psychiatric episodes similar to schizophrenia' as well as damaging memory".[28] Dr. Matt Jones, the lead author of the study that is cited in the article was quoted by Cannabis Law Reform as saying: "This study does NOT say that one spliff will bring on schizophrenia".[29]

    Carbon Brief complained to the Press Complaints Commission about an article published in the Daily Mail titled "Hidden green tax in fuel bills: How a £200 stealth charge is slipped on to your gas and electricity bills" because the £200 figure was unexplained, unreferenced and, according to Ofgem, incorrect. The Daily Mail quietly removed the article from their website.[30][31][32]

    In 2013, the Met Office criticised an article about climate change in the Daily Mail by James Delingpole for containing "a series of factual inaccuracies".[33] The Daily Mail in response published a letter from the Met Office chairman on its letters page, as well as offering to append the letter to Delingpole's article.[34]

    In February 2017, the Daily Mail became the first source to be deprecated as an "unreliable source" for use as a reference on the English Wikipedia.[26] Its use as a reference is now "generally prohibited, especially when other more reliable sources exist".[18][35] Support for the ban centred on "the Daily Mail's reputation for poor fact checking, sensationalism, and flat-out fabrication".[18] Wikipedia's deprecation of the Daily Mail generated a significant amount of media attention, especially from the British media.[36] Though the Daily Mail strongly contested this decision by the community, Wikipedia's co-founder Jimmy Wales backed the community's choice, stating: "I think what [the Daily Mail has] done brilliantly in this ad funded world (is) they've mastered the art of click bait, they've mastered the art of hyped up headlines, they've also mastered the art of, I'm sad to say, of running stories that simply aren't true. And that's why Wikipedia decided not to accept them as a source anymore. It's very problematic, they get very upset when we say this, but it's just fact."[37] A February 2017 editorial in The Times commenting on the decision stated that "Newspapers make errors and have the responsibility to correct them. Wikipedia editors' fastidiousness, however, appears to reflect less a concern for accuracy than dislike of the Daily Mail's opinions."[38] In 2018, the Wikipedia community upheld the Daily Mail's deprecation as a source.[36]

    In August 2018, the Mail Online deleted a lengthy news article titled "Powder Keg Paris" by journalist Andrew Malone which focused on "illegal migrants" living in the Paris suburb of Saint Denis, after a string of apparent inaccuracies were highlighted on social media by French activist Marwan Muhammad, including mistaking Saint-Denis, the city, for Seine-Saint-Denis, the department northeast of Paris. Local councillor Majid Messaoudene said that the article had set out to "stigmatise" and "harm" the area and its people. The journalist, Andrew Malone, subsequently deleted his Twitter account.[39][40] In 2019, the IPSO ruled against the Daily Mail and confirmed in its ruling that the article was inaccurate.[41][42]

    In early 2019, the mobile version of the Microsoft Edge Internet browser started warning visitors to the MailOnline site, via its NewsGuard plugin, that "this website generally fails to maintain basic standards of accuracy and accountability" and "has been forced to pay damages in numerous high-profile cases".[43] In late January 2019, the status of the MailOnline was changed by the Newsguard Plugin from Red to Green, updating its verdict to "this website generally maintains basic standards of accuracy and accountability". An Editors Note from Newsguard stated that "This label now has the benefit of the dailymail.co.uk's input and our view is that in some important respects their objections are right and we were wrong".[44]

    References[แก้]

    1. Gaber, Ivor (2014). "The 'Othering' of 'Red Ed', or How the Daily Mail 'Framed' the British Labour Leader". The Political Quarterly. 85 (4): 471–479. doi:10.1111/1467-923X.12114. ISSN 1467-923X.
    2. Stoegner, Karin; Wodak, Ruth (14 March 2016). "'The man who hated Britain' – the discursive construction of 'national unity' in the Daily Mail". Critical Discourse Studies. 13 (2): 193–209. doi:10.1080/17405904.2015.1103764. ISSN 1740-5904. S2CID 147469921.
    3. Meyer, Anneke (1 March 2010). "Too Drunk To Say No". Feminist Media Studies. 10 (1): 19–34. doi:10.1080/14680770903457071. ISSN 1468-0777. S2CID 142036919.
    4. "Daily Mail - Data - ABC | Audit Bureau of Circulations". www.abc.org.uk.
    5. John Pilger Hidden Agendas Archived 30 เมษายน 2016 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน, London: Vintage, 1998, p. 440
    6. Peter Wilby "Paul Dacre of the Daily Mail: The man who hates liberal Britain" Archived 2 เมษายน 2016 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014)
    7. Sweney, Mark (19 June 2020). "Daily Mail eclipses the Sun to become UK's top-selling paper". The Guardian (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 June 2020.
    8. Lowe, Josh (22 June 2017). "Print vs. Online: Even Britain's Daily Mail Has Issues with Its Website". Newsweek. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 August 2018.
    9. "Daily Mail". Mediauk. คลังข้อมูลเก่าเก็บจากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 8 March 2012. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 March 2012.
    10. Waterson, Jim (6 September 2018). "'A friend to Middle Britain': Geordie Greig begins reign as Daily Mail editor". The Guardian. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 December 2018.
    11. Taylor, Henry (14 August 2014). "How old are you again? UK newspaper age demographics in 4 charts". The Media Briefing. คลังข้อมูลเก่าเก็บจากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 27 December 2016. สืบค้นเมื่อ 5 March 2017.
    12. Hannah Fearn (28 March 2017). "The Daily Mail has a mainly female readership – so why do women enjoy those 'who won Legs-it' headlines?". The Independent. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 November 2017.
    13. Mayhew, Freddy (19 March 2020). "National newspaper ABCs: Daily Mail closes circulation gap on Sun to 5,500 copies". Press Gazette (ภาษาอังกฤษแบบอเมริกัน). สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 August 2020.
    14. PAMCo. "Data Archive – Newsbrand Reach Tables". pamco.co.uk. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 August 2020.
    15. Alpert, Lukas I. (5 December 2019). "Daily Mail's Online Reinvention Relieves Pressure Amid Newspaper-Industry Woes". The Wall Street Journal (ภาษาอังกฤษแบบอเมริกัน). ISSN 0099-9660. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 August 2020.
    16. Brown, Mariella (3 April 2020). "Winners of the National Press Awards for 2019 revealed – Society of Editors" (ภาษาอังกฤษแบบบริติช). สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 June 2020.
    17. "Journalists recognised at Society Of Editors' Press Awards". Yahoo News. July 15, 2021.
    18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Jackson, Jasper (9 February 2017). "Wikipedia bans Daily Mail as 'unreliable' source". The Guardian. สืบค้นเมื่อ 11 February 2017.
    19. Collins, Lauren (April 2012). "Mail Supremacy". The New Yorker. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 January 2016.
    20. 20.0 20.1 Goldacre, Ben (16 October 2010). "The Daily Mail cancer story that torpedoes itself in paragraph 19". The Guardian. สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 August 2015.
    21. 21.0 21.1 Goldacre, Ben (2008). Bad science. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 9780007240197.
    22. Fletcher, Martin (29 April 2016). "What it's like to fall victim to the Mail Online's aggregation machine". New Statesman. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 July 2017.
    23. Meade, Amanda (23 June 2017). "Daily Mail refuses to pay journalist for republishing parts of her work". The Guardian. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 October 2020.
    24. "Fury at the Mail". ABC Online. 5 November 2018. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 October 2020.
    25. Silvester, Benjamin (12 August 2020). "Exclusive! Scoop! First with the news! Journalism has a plagiarism problem". The Citizen. Centre for Advancing Journalism. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 October 2020.
    26. 26.0 26.1 Benjakob, Omer (9 January 2020). "Why Wikipedia is Much More Effective Than Facebook at Fighting Fake News". Haaretz.
    27. NHS (22 February 2012). "'Kids grow out of autism' claim unfounded". สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 August 2020. Can some children simply "grow out" of autism? The Daily Mail certainly thinks so, and today reported that new research by a "prestigious American university" claims that "not only is this possible, it's also common." The Mail's claim is misleading and may offer a false impression to the parents of children with autism.
    28. Cohen, Tamara (25 October 2011). "Just ONE cannabis joint 'can cause psychiatric episodes similar to schizophrenia' as well as damaging memory". Mail Online.
    29. Cannabis Law Reform (26 October 2011). "The Daily Mail – Addicted To Lies And Misinformation About Cannabis". สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 August 2020.
    30. "Daily Mail prints correction over GWPF green tax claims". 7 September 2011. สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 August 2020.
    31. "Daily Mail confused over whether 'green tax' cost is £85 or £300 as Mail on Sunday uses GWPF £200 figure despite PCC ruling". 19 September 2011. สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 August 2020.
    32. "Carbon Brief The Press Complaints Commission and the Daily Mail". 3 October 2011. สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 August 2020.
    33. Met Office Press Office (10 January 2013). "Addressing the Daily Mail and James Delingpole's 'crazy climate change obsession' article". สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 August 2020.
    34. Met Office Press Office (8 March 2013). "Setting the record straight in the Daily Mail". สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 August 2020.
    35. Bowden, George (9 February 2017). "Daily Mail Banned As 'Reliable Source' On Wikipedia in Unprecedented Move". The Huffington Post, UK. Huffington Post. สืบค้นเมื่อ 9 February 2017. The decision was made by the site's community
    36. 36.0 36.1 Harrison, Stephen (1 July 2021). "Wikipedia's War on the Daily Mail". Slate (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 10 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (ลิงก์)
    37. Kharpal, Arjun (19 May 2017). "The Daily Mail has 'mastered the art of running stories that aren't true', Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales says". CNBC. สืบค้นเมื่อ 16 June 2020.
    38. "Truth or Consequences: Fake news will not be countered by castigating legitimate journalism". The Times. 10 February 2017. p. 29. สืบค้นเมื่อ 16 October 2020.
    39. Waterson, Jim (6 August 2018). "Daily Mail removes 'Powder Keg Paris' report after complaints". The Guardian (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 6 September 2018.
    40. Smith, Patrick (6 August 2018). "Mail Online Deleted An Article About "Illegal Migrants" Overwhelming A Paris Suburb". The Guardian (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 6 September 2018.
    41. Charlotte Tobitt (6 February 2019). "IPSO rules against Daily Mail over report claiming 300,000 illegal migrants lived in one French suburb". สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 August 2020.
    42. "05228-18 Versi v Daily Mail". 23 January 2019. สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 August 2020. Decision: Breach - sanction: action as offered by publication
    43. editor, Jim Waterson Media (23 January 2019). "Don't trust Daily Mail website, Microsoft browser warns users". The Guardian. {{cite news}}: |last1= มีชื่อเรียกทั่วไป (help)
    44. Twitter, James Walker (31 January 2019). "'We were wrong': US news rating tool boosts Mail Online trust ranking after talks with unnamed Daily Mail exec". Press Gazette (ภาษาอังกฤษแบบอเมริกัน). สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 February 2019. {{cite web}}: |last= มีชื่อเรียกทั่วไป (help)

    Further reading[แก้]

    • Addison, Adrian (2017). Mail Men: The Unauthorized Story of the Daily Mail (Atlantic Books, ).
    • Bingham, Adrian (2013). "'The Paper That Foretold the War': The Daily Mail and the First World War". Daily Mail Historical Archive 1896–2004 (Cengage Learning).
    • Bingham, Adrian, and Martin Conboy (2015). Tabloid Century: The Popular Press in Britain, 1896 to the present.
    • Bingham, Adrian (2013). "The Voice of 'Middle England'? The Daily Mail and Public Life". Daily Mail Historical Archive 1896–2004 (Cengage Learning)
    • McKenzie, Fred Arthur (1921). The Mystery of the Daily Mail, 1896-1921.
    • Taylor, S. J. (1996). The Great Outsiders: Northcliffe, Rothermere and the Daily Mail.

    แหล่งข้อมูลอื่น[แก้]

    ชะรีอะฮ์ (เพิ่มข้อมูล)[แก้]

    ชะรีอะฮ์ (อาหรับ: شريعة, [ʃaˈriːʕa]) เป็นกฎหมายศาสนาตามธรรมเนียมอิสลาม[1][2][3] ในภาษาอาหรับ คำว่า ชะรีอะฮ์ สื่อถึงกฎสวรรค์ที่เปลี่ยนแปลงไม่ได้ของพระเป็นเจ้า และอยู่ตรงข้ามกับฟิกฮ์ ซึ่งสื่อถึงการตีความทางวิชาการของมนุษย์[4][5][6] ลักษณะการใช้งานในยุคปัจจุบันยังคงพิพาทระหว่างแบบมูลฐานนิยมและนวยุคนิยม[7][2]

    Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of Sharia: the Quran, sunnah (authentic hadith), qiyas (analogical reasoning),[note 1] and ijma (juridical consensus).[9] Different legal schools—of which the most prominent are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafiʽi, and Hanbali—developed methodologies for deriving Sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad.[4][5] Traditional jurisprudence (fiqh) distinguishes two principal branches of law, ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics.[4][6] Its rulings are concerned with ethical standards as much as with legal norms,[10][11] assigning actions to one of five categories: mandatory, recommended, neutral, abhorred, and prohibited.[4][5][6] Thus, some areas of Sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God's will.[5]

    Classical jurisprudence was elaborated by private religious scholars, largely through legal opinions (fatwas) issued by qualified jurists (muftis). It was historically applied in Sharia courts by ruler-appointed judges, who dealt mainly with civil disputes and community affairs.[4][6] Sultanic courts, the police and market inspectors administered criminal justice, which was influenced by Sharia but not bound by its rules.[12][6] Non-Muslim (dhimmi) communities had legal autonomy to adjudicate their internal affairs.[5] Over the centuries, Sunni Islam muftis were gradually incorporated into state bureaucracies,[13] and fiqh was complemented by various economic, criminal and administrative laws issued by Muslim rulers.[14] The Ottoman civil code of 1869–1876 was the first partial attempt to codify Sharia.[15]

    ในสมัยใหม่ กฎหมายดั้งเดิมของโลกมุสลิมส่วนมากถูกแทนที่ด้วยกฎเกณฑ์ที่ได้รับแรงบันดาลใจจากแม่แบบยุโรป[5][16] Judicial procedures and legal education were likewise brought in line with European practice.[5] While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to Sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws.[5] Legislators who codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence.[5][15] The Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamism movements for full implementation of Sharia, including hudud corporal punishments, such as stoning.[5][15] In some cases, this resulted in traditionalist legal reform, while other countries witnessed juridical reinterpretation of Sharia advocated by progressive reformers.[5][15][17] Some Muslim-minority countries recognize the use of Sharia-based family laws for their Muslim populations.[18][19] Sharia also continues to influence other aspects of private and public life.

    บทบาทของชะรีอะฮ์กลายเป็นหัวข้อที่โต้แย้งกันทั่วโลก[5] การนำกฎหมายที่มีฐานจากชะรีอะฮ์มาใช้ก่อให้เกิดความรุนแรงระหว่างชุมชนในประเทศไนจีเรีย[20][21] and may have contributed to the breakup of Sudan.[5] Some jurisdictions in North America have passed bans on use of Sharia, framed as restrictions on religious or foreign laws[22] ยังมีข้อโต้แย้งว่ากฎหมายชะรีอะฮ์เหมาะสมกับประชาธิปไตย, สิทธิมนุษยชน, เสรีภาพทางความคิด, สิทธิสตรี, สิทธิของ LGBT และการธนาคารหรือไม่[23][24][25]

    ชะรีอะฮ์ (อาหรับ: شريعة; อังกฤษ: Sharia/Shari'ah) แปลว่า "ทาง" หรือ "ทางไปสู่แหล่งน้ำ" ใช้หมายถึงประมวลข้อปฏิบัติต่าง ๆ ของกฎหมายศาสนาของศาสนาอิสลาม ที่ครอบคลุมวิถีการดำเนินชีวิตของบุคคลและสาธารณชนที่มีพื้นฐานมาจากหลักนิติศาสตร์ (jurisprudence) ของศาสนาอิสลามสำหรับชาวมุสลิมใช้

    กฎหมายชะรีอะฮ์ครอบคลุมด้านต่าง ๆ ของชีวิตประจำวันที่รวมทั้งการปกครอง เศรษฐกิจ การบริหารธุรกิจ การธนาคาร ระบบการทำสัญญา ความสัมพันธ์ในครอบครัว หลักของความสัมพันธ์ทางเพศ หลักการอนามัย และปัญหาของสังคม

    กฎหมายชะรีอะฮ์ในปัจจุบันเป็นกฎหมายศาสนาที่ใช้กันอย่างกว้างขวางที่สุดและเป็นกฎหมายที่ปรากฏบ่อยที่สุดของระบบกฎหมายของโลกพอ ๆ กับคอมมอนลอว์ และซีวิลลอว์[26] ในระหว่างยุคทองของอิสลาม กฎหมายอิสลามอาจถือว่ามีอิทธิพลต่อการวิวัฒนาการของคอมมอนลอว์[27] ซึ่งก็ทำให้มีอิทธิพลต่อการวิวัฒนาการของคอมมอนลอว์ระดับสถาบันต่าง ๆ[28]

    ดูเพิ่ม[แก้]

    อ้างอิง[แก้]

    หมายเหตุ[แก้]

    1. Twelver Shia jurisprudence does not recognize the use of qiyas, but relies on reason (ʿaql) in their place.[8]

    อ้างอิง[แก้]

    1. Bassiouni, M. Cherif (2014) [2013]. "The Sharīa, Islamic Law (Fiqh), and Legal Methods (Ilm Uṣūl al-Fiqh)". ใน Bassiouni, M. Cherif (บ.ก.). The Shari'a and Islamic Criminal Justice in Time of War and Peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 18–87. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139629249.003. ISBN 9781139629249. LCCN 2013019592.
    2. 2.0 2.1 "British & World English: sharia". Oxford: Oxford University Press. เก็บจากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 8 December 2015. สืบค้นเมื่อ 4 December 2015.
    3. Editors, History com. "Islam". HISTORY (ภาษาอังกฤษ). เก็บจากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 May 2020. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2020-01-24. {{cite web}}: |last= มีชื่อเรียกทั่วไป (help)
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 John L. Esposito, บ.ก. (2014). "Islamic Law". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. เก็บจากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 31 March 2019. สืบค้นเมื่อ 29 January 2017.
    5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 Vikør 2014.
    6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Calder 2009.
    7. Amanat 2009: "Muslim fundamentalists [...] claim that Shari’a and its sources [...] constitute a divine law that regulates all aspects of Muslim life, as well as Muslim societies and Muslim states [...]. Muslim modernists, [...] on the other hand, criticize the old approaches to Shari’a by traditional Muslim jurists as obsolete and instead advocate innovative approaches to Shari’a that accommodate more pluralist and relativist views within a democratic framework."
    8. Schneider 2014.
    9. John L. Esposito, Natana J. DeLong-Bas (2001), Women in Muslim family law Archived 19 ตุลาคม 2017 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน, p. 2. Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085. Quote: "[...], by the ninth century, the classical theory of law fixed the sources of Islamic law at four: the Quran, the Sunnah of the Prophet, qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (consensus)."
    10. Coulson & El Shamsy 2019.
    11. Hallaq 2010, p. 145.
    12. Ziadeh 2009c.
    13. Dallal & Hendrickson 2009.
    14. Stewart 2013, p. 500.
    15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Mayer 2009.
    16. Otto 2008, p. 19.
    17. Rabb 2009d.
    18. Otto 2008, pp. 18–20.
    19. Stahnke, Tad and Robert C. Blitt (2005), "The Religion-State Relationship and the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Comparative Textual Analysis of the Constitutions of Predominantly Muslim Countries." Georgetown Journal of International Law, volume 36, issue 4; also see Sharia Law profile by Country Archived 16 มกราคม 2014 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน, Emory University (2011)
    20. Staff (3 January 2003). "Analysis: Nigeria's Sharia Split" Archived 12 กรกฎาคม 2018 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน. BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2011. "Thousands of people have been killed in fighting between Christians and Muslims following the introduction of sharia punishments in northern Nigerian states over the past three years [...] human rights' groups have complained that these religious laws are archaic and unjust, and create an atmosphere of intimidation against Christians – even though they are not subject to the Sharia.".
    21. Harnischfeger, Johannes (2008).
       ● p. 16. "When the Governor of Kaduna announced the introduction of Sharia, although non-Muslims form almost half of the population, violence erupted, leaving more than 1,000 people dead."
       ● p. 189. "When a violent confrontation loomed in February 200, because the strong Christian minority in Kaduna was unwilling to accept the proposed sharia law, the sultan and his delegation of 18 emirs went to see the governor and insisted on the passage of the bill."
    22. Thomas, Jeffrey L. (2015). Scapegoating Islam: Intolerance, Security, and the American Muslim. ABC-CLIO. pp. 83–86. ISBN 978-1440831003. เก็บจากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 13 December 2016. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 January 2017.
    23. An-Na'im, Abdullahi A (1996). "Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights". ใน Witte, John; van der Vyver, Johan D. (บ.ก.). Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives. pp. 337–59. ISBN 978-9041101792.
    24. Hajjar, Lisa (2004). "Religion, State Power, and Domestic Violence in Muslim Societies: A Framework for Comparative Analysis". Law & Social Inquiry. 29 (1): 1–38. doi:10.1111/j.1747-4469.2004.tb00329.x. JSTOR 4092696. S2CID 145681085.
    25. Al-Suwaidi, J. (1995). Arab and western conceptions of democracy; in Democracy, war, and peace in the Middle East (Editors: David Garnham, Mark A. Tessler), Indiana University Press, see Chapters 5 and 6; ISBN 978-0253209399[ต้องการเลขหน้า]
    26. (Badr 1978)
    27. (Makdisi 1999)
    28. (Badr 1978, pp. 196-8)

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