↑Roemer, H. R. (1986). "The Safavid Period". The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–350. ISBN 0-521-20094-6. Excerpt from Page 331:"Depressing though the condition in the country may have been at the time of the fall of Safavids, they cannot be allowed to overshadow the achievements of the dynasty, which was in many respects to prove essential factors in the development of Persia in modern times. These include the maintanence of Persian as the official language and of the present-day boundaries of the country, adherence to the Twelever Shi'i, the monarchical system, the planning and architectural feartures of the urban centers, the centralised administration of the state, the alliance of the Shi'i Ulama with the merchant bazaars, and the symbiosis of the Persian-speaking population with important non-Persian, especially Turkish speaking minorities"
↑Savory, Roger (2007). Iran Under the Safavids. Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN0521042518, ISBN 978-0-521-04251-2 Check |isbn= value (help). "qizilbash normally spoke Azari brand of Turkish at court, as did the Safavid shahs themselves; lack of familiarity with the Persian language may have contributed to the decline from the pure classical standards of former times"
↑Helen Chapin Metz. Iran , a Country study. 1989. Original from the University of Michigan. pg 313. Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989. pg 145. Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottomon Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977. pg 77
↑Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, I. B. Tauris (March 30, 2006)
↑ R.M. Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edition
↑Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties? in R.M. Savory, Iran under the Safavids (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980), page 3.