ผู้ใช้:EZBELLA/กระบะทราย4

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กระบะทราย1   กระบะทราย2   กระบะทราย3   กระบะทราย4   กระบะทราย5   กระบะทราย6    

นี้เป็นรายชื่อ จุดที่สุดในโลกสถานที่ทางภูมิศาสตร์ที่อยู่เหนือสุด ใต้สุด สูงสุด ต่ำสุด ไกลจากทะเลที่สุดหรือไกลจากแผ่นดินที่สุดและสถานที่ทางภูมิศาสตร์อื่น ๆ ในผืนดิน ทวีปหรือประเทศ

สำหรับรายชื่ออื่น ๆ อย่างสถานที่ สภาพอากาศ อุณหภูมิดูที่ที่สุดในโลก รายชื่อจุดสุดยอดและรายชื่อสถิติสภาพอากาศ สำหรับประเทศไทยดูที่ที่สุดในประเทศไทย

โลก[แก้]

ละติจูดและลองจิจูด[แก้]

Elevation[แก้]

Highest points[แก้]

  • The highest point on the Earth's surface measured from sea level is the summit of Mount Everest on the border of Nepal and China. While measurements of its height vary slightly, the elevation of its peak is usually given as แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff above sea level. It was first reached by Sir Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Sherpa of Nepal Tenzing Norgay in 1953 (with speculation that it may have been reached in 1924).
  • The point farthest from the Earth's center is the summit of Chimborazo[3] in Ecuador, at 6,384.4 กิโลเมตร (3,967.1 ไมล์) from the center of the earth (the peak's elevation in relation to sea level is 6,263.47 เมตร (20,549 ฟุต)).[note 2] This is because the Earth is an oblate spheroid rather than a perfect sphere: it is wider at the equator and narrower between the poles. Therefore, the summit of Chimborazo, which is near the equator, is farther away from the center of the Earth than the summit of Mount Everest (the summit of Mount Everest is แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff closer, at แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff to the Earth's center). Peru's Huascarán (at 6,768 เมตร (22,205 ฟุต)) contends closely with Chimborazo, the difference in the mountains' heights being just แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff.
  • The fastest point on Earth, or in other words, the point furthest from the axis of Earth is the summit of Cayambe[5] in Ecuador at 1,675.89 กม./ชม. (1,041 ไมล์/ชม.) and 6,383.95 กิโลเมตร (3,967 ไมล์) from the axis. Like Chimborazo, which is the fourth fastest peak at 1,675.47 กม./ชม. (1,041 ไมล์/ชม.), it is close to the equator and takes advantage of the oblate spheroid nature of the Earth. More importantly, however, it being so near the equator means that the majority of it's distance from the center of the Earth goes into it being away from the axis. The importance of latitude becomes most apparent when one looks a the Challenger Deep (speed of 1,639.15 กม./ชม. (1,019 ไมล์/ชม.)) compared to Mount Everest (speed of 1,481.67 กม./ชม. (921 ไมล์/ชม.)).
Highest points attainable by transportation[แก้]
Highest geographical features[แก้]

Lowest points[แก้]

Lowest artificial points[แก้]
Lowest natural points[แก้]
ดูเพิ่มเติมที่: List of places on land with elevations below sea level
The shore of the Dead Sea in Israel
Lowest points attainable by transportation[แก้]

The lowest railroad station was the Japanese Yoshioka-Kaitei Station, at แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff below sea level, but it was closed in 2014. The lowest railroad not inside a tunnel is แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff below sea level, on the Mojave Desert between Yuma, Arizona, and Palm Springs, California, in the United States of America.[9]

Lowest cities[แก้]

Baku is located 28 metres (92 ft) below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and also the largest city in the world located below sea level.

Remoteness[แก้]

Poles of inaccessibility[แก้]

ดูบทความหลักที่: Pole of inaccessibility

Each continent has its own continental pole of inaccessibility, defined as the place on the continent that is farthest from any ocean. Similarly, each ocean has its own oceanic pole of inaccessibility, defined as the place in the ocean that is farthest from any land.

Continental[แก้]
If adopted, this would place the final EPIA roughly แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff closer to the ocean than the point that is currently agreed upon.[23] Coincidentally, EPIA1, or EPIA2, and the most remote of the Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility (specifically, the point in the South Pacific Ocean that is farthest from land) are similarly remote; EPIA1 is less than แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff closer to the ocean than the Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility is to land.
Oceanic[แก้]

Other places considered the most remote[แก้]

  • The most remote island is Bouvet Island, a small, uninhabited island in the South Atlantic Ocean that is a dependency of Norway. It lies at coordinates 54°26′S 3°24′E / 54.433°S 3.400°E / -54.433; 3.400 (most remote island). The nearest land is the uninhabited Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, over 1,600 กิโลเมตร (994 ไมล์) to the south. The nearest inhabited lands are Tristan da Cunha, 2,260 กิโลเมตร (1,404 ไมล์) away, and the coast of South Africa, 2,580 กิโลเมตร (1,603 ไมล์) away.
  • The title for most remote inhabited island or archipelago (the farthest away from any other permanently inhabited place) depends on how the question is interpreted. If the south Atlantic island Tristan da Cunha (population about 300) and its dependency Gough Island (with a small staffed research post), which are 399 กิโลเมตร (248 ไมล์) from each other, are considered part of the same archipelago, or if Gough Island is not counted because it has no permanent residents, then Tristan da Cunha is the world's most remote inhabited island/archipelago: the main island, also called Tristan da Cunha, is 2,434 กิโลเมตร (1,512 ไมล์) from the island Saint Helena, 2,816 กิโลเมตร (1,750 ไมล์) from South Africa, and แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff from South America. It is 1,845 กิโลเมตร (1,146 ไมล์) away from uninhabited Bouvet Island. However, if Gough and Tristan da Cunha are considered separately, they disqualify each other, and the most remote inhabited island is Easter Island in the South Pacific Ocean, which lies 2,075 กิโลเมตร (1,289 ไมล์) from Pitcairn Island (about 50 residents in 2013), 2,606 กิโลเมตร (1,619 ไมล์) from Rikitea on the island of Mangareva (the nearest town with a population over 500), and 3,512 กิโลเมตร (2,182 ไมล์) from the coast of Chile (the nearest continental point). The Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean are another contender, lying 1,340 กิโลเมตร (830 ไมล์) from the small Alfred Faure scientific station in Île de la Possession, but otherwise more than 3,300 กิโลเมตร (2,100 ไมล์) from the coast of Madagascar (the nearest permanently inhabited place), 450 กิโลเมตร (280 ไมล์) northwest of uninhabited Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and 1,440 กิโลเมตร (890 ไมล์) from the non-permanent scientific station located in Île Amsterdam.
  • The most remote city...
    • ...with a population in excess of one million from the nearest city with a population in excess of one million is Auckland, New Zealand. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is Sydney, Australia, 2,168.9 กิโลเมตร (1,347.7 ไมล์) away.[26]
    • ...with a population in excess of one million from the nearest city with a population above 100,000 is Perth, Australia, located 2,138 กิโลเมตร (1,328 ไมล์)[27] away from Adelaide, Australia.
    • ...with a population in excess of 100,000 from the nearest city of at least that population is Honolulu, Hawaii, United States. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is San Francisco, แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff away.[28]
    • ...that is a national capital from the nearest national capital is a tie between Wellington, New Zealand, and Canberra, Australia, which are 2,326 กิโลเมตร (1,445 ไมล์) apart from each other.
  • The most remote airport in the world from another airport is Mataveri International Airport (IPC) on Easter Island, which has a single runway for military and public use. It is located 2,603 กิโลเมตร (1,617 ไมล์) from Totegegie Airport (GMR; very few flights) in the Gambier Islands, French Polynesia and 3,759 กิโลเมตร (2,336 ไมล์) from Santiago, Chile (SCL; a fairly large airport). In comparison, the airport at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station (NZSP) is not very remote at all, being located only 1,355 กิโลเมตร (842 ไมล์) from Williams Field (NZWD) near Ross Island.[29]

Farthest-apart cities[แก้]

The pairs of cities (with a population over 100,000) with the greatest distance between them are:[30]

  1. Rosario, Argentina to Xinghua, China: 19,996 กิโลเมตร (12,425 ไมล์)[31]
  2. Lu'an, China to Río Cuarto, Argentina: 19,994 กิโลเมตร (12,424 ไมล์)[32]
  3. Cuenca, Ecuador to Subang Jaya, Malaysia: 19,989 กิโลเมตร (12,421 ไมล์)[33]
  4. Salamanca, Spain to Lower Hutt, New Zealand: 19,961 กิโลเมตร (12,403 ไมล์)[34]
  5. Marbella, Spain to Auckland, New Zealand: 19,960 กิโลเมตร (12,403 ไมล์)[35]

Center[แก้]

  • Since the Earth is a spheroid, its centre (the core) is thousands of kilometres beneath its crust. On the surface, the center of the standard geographic model as viewed on a traditional world map is the point 0°, 0° (the coordinates of zero degrees latitude by zero degrees longitude), which is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately แม่แบบ:Convert/LoffAinDbSoff south of Accra, Ghana, in the Gulf of Guinea, at the intersection of the Equator and the Prime Meridian. However, the selection for the Prime Meridian as the 0° longitude meridian is culturally and historically dependent and therefore arbitrary.
  • The center of population, the place to which there is the shortest average route for every individual human being in the world, could also be considered a "center of the world". This point is located in the north of the Indian subcontinent, although the precise location has never been calculated and is constantly shifting due to changes in the distribution of the human population across the planet.

Longest lines between two points[แก้]

Along constant latitude[แก้]

Along constant longitude[แก้]

Along any geodesic[แก้]

These are the longest straight lines that can be drawn between any two points on the surface of the Earth and remain exclusively over land or water; the points need not lie on the same latitude or longitude.

Notes[แก้]

  1. การเปลี่ยนเส้นแบ่งเขตวันสากลปี 1995 ย้ายดินแดนทั้งหมดของคิริบาสมาฝั่งเอเชียของเส้นแบ่งเขตวันสากล ทำให้เกาะแคโรไลน์เป็นเกาะตะวันออกสุดของโลก แต่หากใช้เส้นแบ่งเขตวันก่อนหน้านี้ตาฟาหิของตองงาจะเป็นจุดตะวันออกสุดของโลก
  2. The elevation given here was established by a GPS survey in February 2016. The survey was carried out by a team from the French Research Institute for Development, working in cooperation with the Ecuadorian Military Geographic Institute.[4]
  1. Gould Coast US Geographic Survey.
  2. "Bay of Whales - former bay, Antarctica". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  3. "Highest Mountain in the World". geology.com.
  4. "Chimborazo, el volcán de Ecuador más alto que el Everest (si se mide desde el centro de la Tierra)". BBC Mundo. 7 April 2016. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2016-04-08.
  5. Klenke, Paul. "Distance to the Center of the Earth". Summit Post. สืบค้นเมื่อ 4 July 2018.
  6. McIntyre, Loren (April 1987). "The High Andes". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. 171 (4): 422–460. (includes description and photos of Aucanquilcha summit road and mine)
  7. Assumpció Térmens (2006-03-20). "ICC – Semo Khardung" (PDF). viewfinderpanoramas.org (in อังกฤษ). Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2017-02-05.
  8. "Battle for the Highest Motorable Road" (in อังกฤษ). Motoroids. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2017-10-17.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Bennett, Suzy (October 2003). "Destination Guides – World's highest railway, Peru – Wanderlust Travel Magazine". Wanderlust Magazine. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10 October 2008.
  10. Ben Blanchard (16 September 2013). "China opens world's highest civilian airport". Reuters. สืบค้นเมื่อ 16 September 2013.
  11. "Siachen: The world's highest cold war". CNN. 20 May 2002. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 May 2010.
  12. "Carrel refuge". summitpost.org.
  13. "Andes Website – Information about Ojos del Salado volcano, a high mountain in South America and the world's highest volcano". สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 January 2013.
  14. "The Highest Lake in the World". สืบค้นเมื่อ 7 September 2007.
  15. "ASTER measurement of supraglacial lakes in the Mount Everest region of the Himalaya: The main Khumbu Glacier is about 17 km long with elevations ranging from 4900m at the terminus to 7600m at the source....The 7600m to 8000m elevations are also depicted on numerous detailed topographic maps". สืบค้นเมื่อ 24 November 2008.
  16. "The Mystery of World's highest river and largest Canyon". Archived from the original on 21 September 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 7 September 2007.
  17. "Island Superlatives". สืบค้นเมื่อ 7 September 2007.
  18. "TauTona, Anglo Gold – Mining Technology". SPG Media Group PLC. 1 January 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 March 2009.
  19. "Transocean's Ultra-Deepwater Semisubmersible Rig Deepwater Horizon Drills World's Deepest Oil and Gas Well". Transocean. Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. สืบค้นเมื่อ 7 June 2010.
  20. "Challenger Deep – the Mariana Trench". สืบค้นเมื่อ 30 July 2012.
  21. Klimchouck, Alexander. "The deepest cave in the world (Krubera Cave) became 6 m deeper". speleogenesis.info. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10 August 2013.
  22. "News Story – Bedmap2 gives scientists a more detailed view of Antarctica's landmass". News Story – Bedmap2 gives scientists a more detailed view of Antarctica’s landmass. NERC BASS. 8 March 2013. สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 May 2015.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Lombardo, Umberto (2007). "Poles of Inaccessibility: A Calculation Algorithm for the Remotest Places on Earth" (PDF). Scottish Geographical Journal. Informa UK. 123 (3): 227–233. doi:10.1080/14702540801897809. ISSN 1470-2541. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2014.
  24. Centre of Australia, States and Territories Archived 22 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Geoscience Australia
  25. "Where is Point Nemo?". NOAA. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 February 2015.
  26. Draft Logic – Google Maps Distance Calculator, accessed 4 September 2011
  27. "Flight Distance from Perth, Australia to Adelaide, Australia". travelmath.com.
  28. "The Most Isolated Cities of the World". cityextremes.com.
  29. "Great Circle Mapper". gcmap.com.
  30. "Discover The Furthest City On Earth From Wherever You Live". furthestcity.com.
  31. "What's the Farthest City and Country from Rosario, Argentina?". furthestcity.com.
  32. "What's the Farthest City and Country from Liu'an, Anhui, China?". furthestcity.com.
  33. "What's the Farthest City and Country from Cuenca, Ecuador?". furthestcity.com.
  34. "What's the Farthest City and Country from Salamanca, Spain?". furthestcity.com.
  35. "What's the Farthest City and Country from Marbella, Spain?". furthestcity.com.
  36. (Map from gcmap)
  37. (Map from gcmap)
  38. Chabukswar, Rohan; Mukherjee, Kushal (2018-04-09). "Longest Straight Line Paths on Water or Land on the Earth". arXiv:1804.07389. Bibcode:2018arXiv180407389C.
  39. David Shultz (2018-04-30). "This ocean path will take you on the longest straight-line journey on Earth". Science Magazine.
  40. (Map from gcmap)
  41. (Map from gcmap)