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ผู้นำของจี 20

ประเทศอำนาจปานกลาง (อังกฤษ: middle power) หมายถึง รัฐซึ่งมีความสามารถที่จะแผ่อิทธิพลในระดับภูมิภาค ซึ่งแม้จะไม่ใช่ทั้งอภิมหาอำนาจหรือมหาอำนาจ แต่ก็มีความสามารถในการแผ่อิทธิพลในภูมิภาคของตนเอง






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  2. Otte M, Greve J (2000) A Rising Middle Power?: German Foreign Policy in Transformation, 1989-1999, St. Martin's Press
  3. Sperling, James (2001). "Neither Hegemony nor Dominance: Reconsidering German Power in Post Cold-War Europe". British Journal of Political Science. 31 (2). doi:10.1017/S0007123401000151.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Tobias Harris (2008). "'Japan Accepts its "Middle-Power" Fate'". Far Eastern Economic Review. Vol. 171 no. 6. p. 45. 'Japan is settling into a position as a middle power in Asia, sitting uneasily between the U.S., its security ally, and China, its most important economic partner; In this it finds itself in a situation similar to Australia, India, South Korea and the members of Asean.' Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |magazine= (help)
  5. Efstathopoulos, Charalampos (2011). "Reinterpreting India's Rise through the Middle Power Prism". Asian Journal of Political Science. 19 (1): 74–95. doi:10.1080/02185377.2011.568246. India's role in the contemporary world order can be optimally asserted by the middle power concept. The concept allows for distinguishing both strengths and weakness of India's globalist agency, shifting the analytical focus beyond material-statistical calculations to theorise behavioural, normative and ideational parameters.
  6. Robert W. Bradnock, India's Foreign Policy since 1971 (The Royal Institute for International Affairs, London: Pinter Publishers, 1990), quoted in Leonard Stone, 'India and the Central Eurasian Space', Journal of Third World Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2007, p. 183: 'The U.S. is a superpower whereas India is a middle power. A superpower could accommodate another superpower because the alternative would be equally devastating to both. But the relationship between a superpower and a middle power is of a different kind. The former does not need to accommodate the latter while the latter cannot allow itself to be a satellite of the former."
  7. Cartwright, Jan (2009). "India's Regional and International Support for Democracy: Rhetoric or Reality?". Asian Survey. 49 (3): 403–428. doi:10.1525/as.2009.49.3.403. India’s democratic rhetoric has also helped it further establish its claim as being a rising "middle power." (A "middle power" is a term that is used in the field of international relations to describe a state that is not a superpower but still wields substantial influence globally. In addition to India, other "middle powers" include, for example, Australia and Canada.)
  8. Verbeek, Bertjan; Giacomello, Giampiero (2011). Italy's foreign policy in the twenty-first century : the new assertiveness of an aspiring middle power. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-4868-6.
  9. "Operation Alba may be considered one of the most important instances in which Italy has acted as a regional power, taking the lead in executing a technically and politically coherent and determined strategy." See Federiga Bindi, Italy and the European Union (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011), p. 171.
  10. "Italy plays a prominent role in European and global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs. The country's European political, social and economic influence make it a major regional power." See Italy: Justice System and National Police Handbook, Vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: International Business Publications, 2009), p. 9.
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  12. Soeya Yoshihide, 'Diplomacy for Japan as a Middle Power, Japan Echo, Vol. 35, No. 2 (2008), pp. 36-41.
  13. Neumann, Iver B. (2008). "Russia as a great power, 1815–2007". Journal of International Relations and Development. 11: 128–151 [p. 128]. doi:10.1057/jird.2008.7. As long as Russia's rationality of government deviates from present-day hegemonic neo-liberal models by favouring direct state rule rather than indirect governance, the West will not recognize Russia as a fully fledged great power.
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  17. 17.0 17.1 Yasmi Adriansyah, 'Questioning Indonesia's place in the world', Asia Times (20 September 2011): 'Countries often categorized as middle power (MP) include Australia, Canada and Japan. The reasons for this categorization are the nations' advanced political-economic stature as well as their significant contribution to international cooperation and development. India and Brazil have recently become considered middle powers because of their rise in the global arena—particularly with the emerging notion of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China).'
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 Buzan, Barry (2004). The United States and the Great Powers. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-7456-3375-7.
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  25. 25.0 25.1 Gladys Lechini, Middle Powers: IBSA and the New South-South Cooperation. NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol. 40, No. 5 (2007): 28-33: 'Today, a new, more selective South-South cooperation has appeared, bringing some hope to the people of our regions. The trilateral alliance known as the India, Brazil, and South Africa Dialogue Forum, or IBSA, exemplifies the trend … The three member countries face the same problems and have similar interests. All three consider themselves "middle powers" and leaders of their respective regions, yet they have also been subject to pressures from the North.'
  26. Daniel Flemes, Emerging Middle Powers' Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspective of the IBSA Dialogue Forum. Hamburg: GIGA, 2007.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Behringer, Ronald M. (2005). "Middle Power Leadership on the Human Security Agenda". Cooperation and Conflict. 40 (3): 305–342. doi:10.1177/0010836705055068.
  28. Crosby, Ann Denholm (1997). "A Middle-Power Military in Alliance: Canada and NORAD". Journal of Peace Research. 34 (1): 37–52. doi:10.1177/0022343397034001004. JSTOR 424829.
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  38. 38.0 38.1 Jonathan H. Ping, Middle Power Statecraft: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Asia Pacific (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2005).
  39. Anoushiravan Ehteshami and Raymond Hinnesbusch, Syria and Iran: Middle Power in a Penetrated Regional System (London: Routledge, 1997).
  40. Samhat, Nayef H. (2000). "Middle Powers and American Foreign Policy: Lessons for Irano-U.S. Relations, 1962–77". Policy Studies Journal. 28 (1): 11–26. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0072.2000.tb02013.x.
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  46. "Kazakhstan and the struggle over Central Asia". Spectator USA. 5 June 2019.
  47. Zholdasbekova, Aidar Kurmashev, Dana Akhmedyanova, Houman Sadri, Akbota (1 October 2018). "Kazakhstan's Middle Power Response to Terrorism". Insight Turkey – โดยทาง www.insightturkey.com.
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  50. Kim R. Nossal and Richard Stubbs, 'Mahathir's Malaysia: An Emerging Middle Power?' in Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).
  51. Louis Belanger and Gordon Mace, 'Middle Powers and Regionalism in the Americas: The Cases of Argentina and Mexico', in Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).
  52. 52.0 52.1 Pierre G. Goad, 'Middle Powers to the Rescue?', Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol. 163, No. 24 (2000), p. 69.
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