ผู้ใช้:Pilarbini/กระบะทราย/กรุ 5

    จากวิกิพีเดีย สารานุกรมเสรี
    บีเอฟอาร์
    ไฟล์:SpaceX BFR launch vehicle.jpg
    SpaceX rendering of BFR
    หน้าที่
    ผู้ผลิตSpaceX
    ประเทศUnited States
    ค่าใช้จ่ายต่อเที่ยวบิน
    • US$7 million (external estimate for full reusability)[2]
    • US$335 million (estimate build cost for booster and ship)[3]
    ขนาด
    สูง106 m (348 ft)[1]
    เส้นผ่าศูนย์กลาง9 m (30 ft)
    มวล4,400,000 kg (9,700,000 lb)
    ส่วน2
    ความจุ

    แม่แบบ:Infobox rocket/Payload แม่แบบ:Infobox rocket/Payload

    แม่แบบ:Infobox rocket/Payload
    ประวัติการบิน
    สถานะIn development. First suborbital flights in 2019[4]
    จุดปล่อยตัว
    แม่แบบ:Infobox rocket/Stage แม่แบบ:Infobox rocket/Stage

    BFR[1]:2:35 is a design for SpaceX's privately funded next-generation launch vehicle and spacecraft announced by Elon Musk in September 2017;[5][6] Musk has said the first spacecraft prototype will begin testing in early 2019.[4] The overall space vehicle architecture includes reusable launch vehicles and spacecraft that are intended by SpaceX to replace all of the company's existing hardware by the early 2020s, and also ground infrastructure for rapid launch and relaunch, and zero-gravity propellant transfer technology to be deployed in low Earth orbit (LEO). The new vehicles are much larger than the existing SpaceX fleet. The large payload to Earth orbit of up to 150,000 kg (330,000 lb) makes BFR a super heavy-lift launch vehicle.

    The BFR system is planned to replace the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles, as well as the Dragon spacecraft, initially aiming at the Earth-orbit launch market, but explicitly adding substantial capability to support long-duration spaceflight in the cislunar and Mars mission environments.[1] SpaceX intends this approach to bring significant cost savings that will help the company justify the development expense of designing and building the BFR system.[7]

    SpaceX had initially envisioned a larger design known as the ITS launch vehicle, which was presented in September 2016 as part of Musk's vision for an interplanetary transport system (ITS).[8] The ITS range of vehicles was designed with a 12-เมตร (39-ฟุต)* core diameter,[9] and the BFR design was scaled down to 9 เมตร (30 ฟุต)*.[1] While the ITS had been solely aimed at Mars transit and other interplanetary uses, SpaceX pivoted in 2017 to a plan that would support all SpaceX launch service provider capabilities with a single range of vehicles: Earth-orbit, Lunar-orbit, interplanetary missions, and even intercontinental passenger transport on Earth.[1][10]

    Development work began in 2012 on the Raptor rocket engines which are to be used for both stages of the BFR launch vehicle, and engine testing began in 2016. New rocket engine designs typically have longer lead times than other major parts of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. A facility to build the vehicles is under construction; manufacture of the first ship was underway by March 2018[4] with first suborbital test flights planned for 2019.[11] The company publicly stated an aspirational goal for initial Mars-bound cargo flights of BFR launching as early as 2022, followed by the first crewed flight to Mars one synodic period later, in 2024.[4][5]

    History[แก้]

    As early as 2007, Elon Musk stated a personal goal of eventually enabling human exploration and settlement of Mars,[12][13] although his personal public interest in Mars goes back at least to 2001.[14] Bits of additional information about the mission architecture were released in 2011–2015, including a 2014 statement that initial colonists would arrive at Mars no earlier than the middle of the 2020s.[15] Company statements in 2016 indicated that SpaceX was "being intentionally fuzzy about the timeline ... We're going to try and make as much progress as we can with a very constrained budget."[16][17]

    Musk stated in a 2011 interview that he hoped to send humans to Mars's surface within 10–20 years,[13] and in late 2012 he stated that he envisioned a Mars colony of tens of thousands with the first colonists arriving no earlier than the middle of the 2020s.[15][18][19]

    Early development[แก้]

    In March 2012, news accounts asserted that a Raptor upper-stage engine had begun development, although details were not released at that time.[20] In October 2012, Musk publicly stated a high-level plan to build a second reusable rocket system with capabilities substantially beyond the Falcon 9/Falcon Heavy launch vehicles on which SpaceX had by then spent several billion US dollars.[21] This new vehicle was to be "an evolution of SpaceX's Falcon 9 booster ... 'much bigger'." But Musk indicated that SpaceX would not be speaking publicly about it until 2013.[15][22]

    In June 2013, Musk stated that he intended to hold off any potential initial public offering of SpaceX shares on the stock market until after the "Mars Colonial Transporter is flying regularly."[23][24]

    In August 2014, media sources speculated that the initial flight test of the Raptor-driven super-heavy launch vehicle could occur as early as 2020, in order to fully test the engines under orbital spaceflight conditions; however, any colonization effort was reported to continue to be "deep into the future".[25][26]

    In early 2015, Musk said that he hoped to release details in late 2015 of the "completely new architecture" for the system that would enable the colonization of Mars. Those plans were delayed,[27][28][29][17][30] and the name of the system architecture was changed to "Interplanetary Transport System" (ITS) in mid-September 2016.[8]

    On 27 September 2016, at the 67th annual meeting of the International Astronautical Congress, Musk unveiled substantial details of the design for the transport vehicles. The details included the very large size (12 เมตร (39 ฟุต)* core diameter),[9] construction material, number and type of engines, thrust, cargo and passenger payload capabilities, in-orbit propellant-tanker refills, representative transit times, and portions of the Mars-side and Earth-side infrastructure that SpaceX intends to build to support a set of three flight vehicles. The three distinct vehicles that made up the ITS launch vehicle in the 2016 design were the:[1]

    • ITS booster, the first-stage of the launch vehicle
    • ITS spaceship, a second-stage and long-duration in-space spacecraft
    • ITS tanker, an alternative second-stage designed to carry more propellant for refueling other vehicles in space

    In addition, Musk championed a larger systemic vision, a vision for a bottom-up emergent order of other interested parties—whether companies, individuals, or governments—to utilize the new and radically lower-cost transport infrastructure that SpaceX would endeavor to build in order to help build a sustainable human civilization on Mars by innovating and meeting the demand that such a growing venture would occasion.[31][32]

    In the November 2016 plan, SpaceX indicated it would fly its earliest research spacecraft missions to Mars using its Falcon Heavy launch vehicle and a specialized modified Dragon spacecraft, called Red Dragon prior to the completion, and first launch, of any ITS launch vehicle. Later Mars missions using ITS were slated at that time to begin no earlier than 2022.[33] In the event, those plans changed, initially with a February 2017 announcement that no SpaceX Mars mission would occur before 2020, two years later than the previously mentioned 2018 Falcon Heavy/Dragon2 exploratory mission,[34] and then, in July 2017, by dropping the plan to use a soft lander Red Dragon spacecraft entirely.[35]

    In July 2017, SpaceX made public its plan to build a much smaller launch vehicle and spacecraft before building the ITS launch vehicle that had been unveiled nine months earlier designed explicitly for the beyond-Earth-orbit (BEO) part of future SpaceX launch service offerings. Musk indicated that the architecture had "evolved quite a bit" since the November 2016 articulation of the comprehensive Mars architecture. A key driver of the new architecture was to be making the new system useful for substantial Earth-orbit and cislunar launches so that the new system might pay for itself, in part, through economic spaceflight activities in the near-Earth space zone.[36] ITS development was put on hold and "Serious development of BFR" began in 2017.[1]:15:22

    Unveiling BFR[แก้]

    On 29 September 2017 at the 68th annual meeting of the International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, South Australia, SpaceX unveiled the new smaller vehicle architecture. Musk said "we are searching for the right name, but the code name, at least, is BFR."[1] The new launch vehicle system is a 9-เมตร (30-ฟุต)* diameter technology, using methalox-fueled Raptor rocket engine technology directed initially at the Earth-orbit and cislunar environment, later, being used for Mars missions.[7][5]

    Aerodynamics of the BFR second stage changed from the 2016-design ITS launch vehicle. The new design is cylindrical with a small delta wing at the rear end which includes a split flap for pitch and roll control. The delta wing and split flaps are needed to expand the mission envelope to allow the ship to land in a variety of atmospheric densities (no, thin, or heavy atmosphere) with a wide range of payloads (small, heavy, or none) in the nose of the ship.[7][1]:18:05–19:25 The cylindrical shape is for mass optimization.

    There are three versions of the ship: BFR cargo, BFR tanker, and BFR crew. The cargo version will be used to launch satellites to low Earth orbit—delivering "significantly more satellites at a time than anything that has been done before"[7]—as well as for cargo transport to the Moon and Mars.

    After retanking in a high-elliptic Earth orbit the spaceship is being designed to be able to land on the Moon and return to Earth without further refueling.[7][1]:31:50 Alternatively, the BFR system would have the capability to carry passengers and cargo in rapid Earth-to-Earth transport.[7]

    ข้อมูลเมื่อ กันยายน 2017, Raptor engines had been tested for a combined total of 1200 seconds of test firing time over 42 main engine tests. The longest test was 100 seconds, which is limited by the size of the propellant tanks at the SpaceX ground test facility. The test engine operates at 20 MPa (200 bar; 2,900 psi) pressure. The flight engine is aimed for 25 MPa (250 bar; 3,600 psi), and SpaceX expects to achieve 30 MPa (300 bar; 4,400 psi) in later iterations.[1]

    The aspirational goal is to send the first two cargo missions to Mars in 2022,[7] with the goal to "confirm water resources and identify hazards" while putting "power, mining, and life support infrastructure" in place for future flights, followed by four ships in 2024, two crewed BFR spaceships plus two cargo-only ships bringing additional equipment and supplies with the goal of setting up the propellant production plant.[1]

    Construction and testing[แก้]

    By September 2017, SpaceX had already started building launch vehicle components. "The tooling for the main tanks has been ordered, the facility is being built, we will start construction of the first ship [in the second quarter of 2018.]" Musk is hoping to be ready for an initial Mars launch in five years, in order to make the 2022 Mars conjunction window.[1] In November 2017, SpaceX president and COO Gwynne Shotwell indicated that approximately half of all current development work on BFR is on Raptor engine development.[37]

    Testing of the BFR vehicle is expected to begin with short suborbital hops of the full-scale ship, likely to be just a few hundred kilometers altitude and lateral distance.[38]

    In March 2018, Musk stated that "construction of the first prototype spaceship is in progress" and that initial suborbital test flights were possible as early as 2019.[4]

    Nomenclature[แก้]

    The descriptor for the large SpaceX Mars rocket has varied over the past five years that SpaceX has publicly released information about the project. "BFR" is the current code name for SpaceX's privately funded launch vehicle announced by Elon Musk in September 2017.[1]:2:39[5][6][39][40][41] SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell has stated the BFR code stands for "Big Falcon Rocket".[42] However, Elon Musk has explained that although BFR is the official name, he drew inspiration from the BFG weapon in the Doom video games.[43]

    From September 2016 through August 2017, the overall system was referred to by SpaceX as the Interplanetary Transport System and the very large 12-เมตร-diameter (39-ฟุต)* launch vehicle itself as the ITS launch vehicle. Beginning in mid-2013, and prior to September 2016, SpaceX had referred to both the architecture and the vehicle as the Mars Colonial Transporter.

    Scope of BFR missions[แก้]

    The BFR launch vehicle is planned to replace all existing SpaceX vehicles and spacecraft in the early 2020s. SpaceX cost estimation has led the company to conclude that BFR launches will be cheaper per launch than launches of the existing vehicles and even cheaper than launches of the retired Falcon 1. This is partly due to the full reusability of all parts of BFR, and partly due to precision landing of the booster on its launch mount and industry-leading launch operations. More specifically, both Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles and the Dragon spacecraft will all be replaced in the operational SpaceX fleet during the early 2020s.[44][7][1]:24:50–27:05

    Flight missions of BFR will thus aim at the:[44]

    Description[แก้]

    The BFR design combines several elements that, according to Musk, will make long-duration, beyond Earth orbit (BEO) spaceflights possible. They will reduce the per-ton cost of launches to low Earth orbit (LEO) and of transportation between BEO destinations. They will also serve all usage for the conventional LEO market. This will allow SpaceX to focus the majority of their development resources on the next-generation launch vehicle.[1][10][47][7]

    The fully reusable super-heavy-lift BFR will consist of a:[1]

    • "BFR booster": a reusable booster stage.
    • a reusable, integrated second-stage-with-spaceship, which will be built in at least three versions:
      • "BFR spaceship": a large, long-duration spaceship capable of carrying passengers or cargo to interplanetary destinations, to LEO, or between destinations on Earth.
      • "BFR tanker": an Earth-orbit, cargo-only propellant tanker to support the refilling of propellants in orbit. The tanker will enable a long-duration spaceship to serve as the second stage of the launch vehicle while expending almost all of its propellant to reach LEO. After refilling in orbit, the spaceship will provide a significant amount of the energy needed to put it onto an interplanetary trajectory.
      • "BFR satellite delivery spacecraft": will have a large cargo bay door that can open in space to facilitate the placement of large and small spacecraft into orbit.

    Combining the second-stage of a launch vehicle with a long-duration spaceship will be a unique type of space mission architecture. This architecture is dependent on the successful refilling of propellants in orbit.[7]

    The BFR spaceship, the BFR tanker, and the BFR satellite delivery spacecraft will have the same outer mold line. The second-stage-spaceship will be capable of returning to the launch location. While returning, it will be able to tolerate multiple engine-out events and land successfully with just one operating engine.[7]

    The functioning of the system during BEO launches to Mars will include propellant production on the Mars surface. This is necessary for the return trip and to reuse the spaceship at a minimal cost. Lunar destinations will be possible without Lunar-propellant depots, so long as the spaceship is refueled in a high-elliptical orbit before the Lunar transit begins.[7]

    The major characteristics of the launch vehicle will include the following.[7][1][48][49]

    • Both stages will be completely reusable.
    • The booster will return to land on the launch mount. The second-stage/spaceship will have the ability to return to near the launch mount. Both will use retropropulsive landing and the reusable LV technologies developed earlier by SpaceX.
    • The expected landing reliability will be on a par with major airliners.
    • Rendezvous and docking will be automated.
    • There will be on-orbit propellant transfers from BFR tankers to BFR spaceships.
    • A spaceship and its payload will be able to transit to the Moon or fly to Mars after an on-orbit propellant loading.
    • Heat-shields will be reusable.
    • The BFR spaceship will have a pressurized volume of 825 m3 (29,100 cu ft), with up to 40 cabins, large common areas, central storage, a galley, and a solar storm shelter for Mars missions.
    Specifications[1][48]
    Component

    Attribute
    Complete BFR booster BFR spaceship/tanker/
    sat-delivery vehicle
    LEO Payload 150,000 kg (330,000 lb)[49]
    Return Payload 50,000 kg (110,000 lb)[49]
    Cargo Volume 825 m3 (29,100 cu ft)[49] N/A 825 m3 (29,100 cu ft)[49]
    (spaceship)
    Diameter 9 m (30 ft)[49]
    Length 106 m (348 ft) 58 m (190 ft) 48 m (157 ft)[49]
    Maximum weight 4,400,000 kg (9,700,000 lb)[49] 1,335,000 kg (2,943,000 lb)
    Propellant Capacity CH
    4
    – 240,000 kg (530,000 lb)
    O
    2
    – 860,000 kg (1,900,000 lb)
    Empty weight 85,000 kg (187,000 lb)[49]
    Engines 31 × SL Raptors 3 × SL + 4 × vacuum Raptors[50]
    Thrust 52.7 MN (11,800,000 lbf) 12.7 MN (2,900,000 lbf) total

    The Raptor engine will operate at 25 MPa (250 bar; 3,600 psi) of chamber pressure and achieve 30 MPa (300 bar; 4,400 psi) in later iterations. The engine will be designed with an extreme focus on reliability for any single engine;[48] since "[the ship] can land with either of two engines, [the ship can achieve] landing reliability that is on par with the safest commercial airliners."[7]

    Manufacturing the BFR[แก้]

    Construction of the initial BFR vehicle will be in a new factory to be built on the Los Angeles waterfront[51] in the San Pedro area.[52] In March 2018, SpaceX indicated that it would manufacture its next-generation, 9-เมตร-diameter (30-ฟุต)* launch vehicle and spaceship at a new facility the company will construct in 2018–2019 on Seaside Drive near Berth 240. The company has leased an 18-acre site for 10 years, with multiple renewals possible, and will use the site for manufacturing, recovery from shipborne landings, and refurbishment of both the BFR booster and the BFR spaceship.[53]

    See also[แก้]

    References[แก้]

    1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 Elon Musk (29 กันยายน 2017). Becoming a Multiplanet Species (video). 68th annual meeting of the International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, Australia: SpaceX. สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 ธันวาคม 2017 – โดยทาง YouTube.{{cite AV media}}: CS1 maint: location (ลิงก์)
    2. Spacex BFR to be lower cost than Falcon 1 at $7 million per launch. Brian Wang. 17 October 2017.
    3. Estimating the cost of BFR. Sam Dinkin. 9 October 2017.
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Foust, Jeff (12 มีนาคม 2018). "Musk reiterates plans for testing BFR". SpaceNews. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 มีนาคม 2018. Construction of the first prototype spaceship is in progress. 'We’re actually building that ship right now,' he said. 'I think we’ll probably be able to do short flights, short sort of up-and-down flights, probably sometime in the first half of next year.'
    5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Jeff Foust (29 กันยายน 2017). "Musk unveils revised version of giant interplanetary launch system". SpaceNews. สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 ตุลาคม 2017.
    6. 6.0 6.1 William Harwood (29 กันยายน 2017). "Elon Musk revises Mars plan, hopes for boots on ground in 2024". SpaceflightNow. สืบค้นเมื่อ 30 กันยายน 2017. The new rocket is still known as the BFR, a euphemism for 'Big (fill-in-the-blank) Rocket.' The reusable BFR will use 31 Raptor engines burning densified, or super-cooled, liquid methane and liquid oxygen to lift 150 tons, or 300,000 pounds, to low Earth orbit, roughly equivalent to NASA’s Saturn 5 moon rocket.
    7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 Musk, Elon (1 มีนาคม 2018). "Making Life Multi-Planetary". New Space. 6 (1). สืบค้นเมื่อ 29 มีนาคม 2018.
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    9. 9.0 9.1 Kenneth Chang (27 กันยายน 2016). "Elon Musk's Plan: Get Humans to Mars, and Beyond". New York Times. สืบค้นเมื่อ 27 กันยายน 2016.
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    11. Falcon Heavy maiden flight press conference
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    14. Derek Richardson (27 กันยายน 2016). "Elon Musk Shows Off Interplanetary Transport System". Spaceflight Insider. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 ตุลาคม 2016.
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    16. Jeff Foust (27 กันยายน 2016). "SpaceX's Mars plans call for massive 42-engine reusable rocket". SpaceNews. สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 ตุลาคม 2016. Musk stated it's possible that the first spaceship would be ready for tests in four years, with the booster ready a few years after that, but he shied away from exact schedules in his presentation. 'We're kind of being intentionally fuzzy about the timeline,' he said. 'We're going to try and make as much progress as we can with a very constrained budget.'
    17. 17.0 17.1 Christian Davenport (13 มิถุนายน 2016). "Elon Musk provides new details on his 'mind blowing' mission to Mars". Washington Post. สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 มิถุนายน 2016.
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    20. Zach Rosenberg (16 มีนาคม 2012). "SpaceX readies upgraded engines". Flightglobal. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 มกราคม 2018. SpaceX is in the midst of a variety of ambitious engine programmes, including the Merlin 2, a significant modification of the Merlin 1 series, and the Raptor upper stage engine. Details of both projects are tightly held.
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    24. Chris Ciaccia (6 มิถุนายน 2013). "SpaceX IPO: 'Possible in the Very Long Term'". The Street. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10 มิถุนายน 2013.
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    26. Chris Bergin (29 สิงหาคม 2014). "Battle of the Heavyweight Rockets -- SLS could face Exploration Class rival". NASAspaceflight.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 30 สิงหาคม 2014.
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    28. 2016 StartmeupHK Venture Forum - Elon Musk on Entrepreneurship and Innovation. StartmeupHK Venture Forum--2016 (video). Invest Hong Kong. 26 มกราคม 2016. เหตุการณ์เกิดขึ้นที่ 30:15-31:40. สืบค้นเมื่อ 26 มกราคม 2016 – โดยทาง YouTube. We'll have the next generation rocket and spacecraft, beyond the Falcon and Dragon series... I'm hoping to describe that architecture later this year at the International Astronautical Congress. which is the big international space event every year. ... first flights to Mars? we're hoping to do that in around 2025 ... nine years from now or thereabouts. {{cite conference}}: แหล่งข้อมูลอื่นใน |conferenceurl= (help); ไม่รู้จักพารามิเตอร์ |conferenceurl= ถูกละเว้น แนะนำ (|conference-url=) (help)
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    34. Loren Grush (17 มีนาคม 2017). "SpaceX is pushing back the target launch date for its first Mars mission". The Verge. สืบค้นเมื่อ 9 เมษายน 2017.
    35. Lore Grush (19 กรกฎาคม 2017). "Elon Musk suggests SpaceX is scrapping its plans to land Dragon capsules on Mars". The Verge.
    36. Elon Musk (19 กรกฎาคม 2017). Elon Musk, ISS R&D Conference (video). ISS R&D Conference, Washington DC, USA. เหตุการณ์เกิดขึ้นที่ 49:48–51:35. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 กันยายน 2017 – โดยทาง YouTube. the updated version of the Mars architecture: Because it has evolved quite a bit since that last talk. ... The key thing that I figured out is how do you pay for it? If we downsize the Mars vehicle, make it capable of doing Earth-orbit activity as well as Mars activity, maybe we can pay for it by using it for Earth-orbit activity. That is one of the key elements in the new architecture. It is similar to what was shown at IAC, but a little bit smaller. Still big, but this one has a shot at being real on the economic front.
    37. Caleb Henry (21 พฤศจิกายน 2017). "SpaceX aims to follow a banner year with an even faster 2018 launch cadence". SpaceNews. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 มกราคม 2018. Shotwell estimated that around 50 percent of the work on BFR is focused on the Raptor engines.
    38. 38.0 38.1 Jeff Foust (15 ตุลาคม 2017). "Musk offers more technical details on BFR system". SpaceNews. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 ตุลาคม 2017. [The] spaceship portion of the BFR, which would transport people on point-to-point suborbital flights or on missions to the moon or Mars, will be tested on Earth first in a series of short hops. ... a full-scale Ship doing short hops of a few hundred kilometers altitude and lateral distance ... fairly easy on the vehicle, as no heat shield is needed, we can have a large amount of reserve propellant and don’t need the high area ratio, deep space Raptor engines.
    39. Tim Fernholz (29 กันยายน 2017). "SpaceX's Elon Musk unveiled a rocket that can fly to the Moon, Mars—and Shanghai". Quartz (ภาษาอังกฤษแบบอเมริกัน). สืบค้นเมื่อ 30 กันยายน 2017.
    40. "Artist's Rendering Of The BFR" (ภาษาอังกฤษ). SpaceX. 12 เมษายน 2017. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 ตุลาคม 2017.
    41. Sherisse Pham; Jackie Wattles (29 กันยายน 2017). "Elon Musk is aiming to land spaceships on Mars in 2022". CNNMoney. สืบค้นเมื่อ 29 กันยายน 2017.
    42. Mike Wall. "What's in a Name? SpaceX's 'BFR' Mars Rocket Acronym Explained". space.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 11 กุมภาพันธ์ 2018.
    43. Heath, Chris (12 ธันวาคม 2015). "Elon Musk Is Ready to Conquer Mars". GQ (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 กุมภาพันธ์ 2018.
    44. 44.0 44.1 Chris Gebhardt (29 กันยายน 2017). "The Moon, Mars, & around the Earth – Musk updates BFR architecture, plans". NASASpaceflight.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 ตุลาคม 2017. In a move that would have seemed crazy a few years ago, Mr. Musk stated that the goal of BFR is to make the Falcon 9 and the Falcon Heavy rockets and their crew/uncrewed Dragon spacecrafts redundant, thereby allowing the company to shift all resources and funding allocations from those vehicles to BFR. Making the Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy, and Dragon redundant would also allow BFR to perform the same Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Beyond LEO satellite deployment missions as Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy – just on a more economical scale as multiple satellites would be able to launch at the same time and on the same rocket thanks to BFR’s immense size.
    45. BFR Earth to Earth, SpaceX, 28 September 2017, accessed 23 December 2017.
    46. Neil Strauss (15 พฤศจิกายน 2017). "Elon Musk: The Architect of Tomorrow". Rolling Stone. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 กุมภาพันธ์ 2018.
    47. Elon Musk (27 กันยายน 2016). Making Humans a Multiplanetary Species (video). Guadalajara, Mexico: SpaceX. เหตุการณ์เกิดขึ้นที่ 9:20–10:10. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10 ตุลาคม 2016. So it is a bit tricky. Because we have to figure out how to improve the cost of the trips to Mars by five million percent ... [which] translates to an improvement of approximately 4 1/2 orders of magnitude. These are the key elements that are needed ... to achieve ...[this] improvement. Most of the improvement would come from full reusability—somewhere between 2 and 2 1/2 orders of magnitude—and then the other 2 orders of magnitude would come from refilling in orbit, propellant production on Mars, and choosing the right propellant.
    48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 Jeff Foust (15 ตุลาคม 2017). "Musk offers more technical details on BFR system". SpaceNews. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 ตุลาคม 2017. [Musk wrote,] "The flight engine design is much lighter and tighter, and is extremely focused on reliability."
    49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 49.5 49.6 49.7 49.8 "Making Life Multiplanetary: Abridged transcript of Elon Musk's presentation to the 68th International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, Australia" (PDF). SpaceX. กันยายน 2017.
    50. Jeff Foust (15 ตุลาคม 2017). "Musk offers more technical details on BFR system". SpaceNews. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 ตุลาคม 2017. [Musk] added that, since the presentation last month, SpaceX has revised the design of the BFR spaceship to add a "medium area ratio" Raptor engine to its original complement of two engines with sea-level nozzles and four with vacuum nozzles. That additional engine helps enable that engine-out capability ... and will "allow landings with higher payload mass for the Earth to Earth transport function."
    51. "Fireside Chat with SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell". Flickr.com. 11 ตุลาคม 2017. สืบค้นเมื่อ 7 มีนาคม 2018.
    52. Seemangal, Robin (1 กุมภาพันธ์ 2018). "SpaceX Gears Up to Finally, Actually Launch the Falcon Heavy". Wired. สืบค้นเมื่อ 7 มีนาคม 2018. SpaceX is actively considering expanding its San Pedro, California facility to begin manufacturing its interplanetary spacecraft. This would allow SpaceX to easily shift personnel from headquarters in Hawthorne.
    53. Berger, Eric (19 มีนาคม 2018). "SpaceX indicates it will manufacture the BFR rocket in Los Angeles". arsTechnica. สืบค้นเมื่อ 21 มีนาคม 2018.

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