↑"Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe: Overview". Legacy Archive for Background Data Analysis (LAMBDA). Greenbelt, Maryland: NASA's High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC). August 4, 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 24 September 2009. The WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) mission is designed to determine the geometry, content, and evolution of the universe via a 13 arcminute FWHM resolution full sky map of the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
↑"Tests of Big Bang: The CMB". Universe 101: Our Universe. NASA. July 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 24 September 2009. Only with very sensitive instruments, such as COBE and WMAP, can cosmologists detect fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background temperature. By studying these fluctuations, cosmologists can learn about the origin of galaxies and large scale structures of galaxies and they can measure the basic parameters of the Big Bang theory.