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จากวิกิพีเดีย สารานุกรมเสรี
สำหรับความหมายอื่น ดูที่ บุตรของพระเจ้า

พระเจ้าผู้เป็นพระบุตร หรือ พระบุตร (อังกฤษ: God the Son) ในศาสนาคริสต์คือบุคคลที่สองในพระตรีเอกานุภาพซึ่งก็คือพระเยซู โดยแก่นถือว่าเป็นพระเจ้าองค์เดียวกับพระบิดาและพระจิต พระบุตรทรงสถิตอยู่ชั่วนิรันดร์กับพระบิดาและพระจิต ก่อนการเนรมิตโลก และหลังวันพิพากษา มีอีกคำหนึ่งในคัมภีร์ไบเบิลคือ บุตรของพระเจ้า ซึ่งเน้นความเป็นมนุษย์ของพระเยซู แต่คำว่า "พระบุตร" ปกติแล้วหมายถึงในด้านความศัักดิ์สิทธิ์ ดังนั้นในทางเทววิทยาคริสเตียนแล้วพระเยซูเป็นพระบุตรเสมอ[1] <! -- แต่ไม่ถูกเปิดเผย though not revealed as such until he also became the Son of God through incarnation. -->

พันธสัญญาเดิม[แก้]

The expression "God the Son" is not used in the Old Testament. However, it has the following references to "sons" of God:

These expressions referred to the ancient concept of Yahweh, the God of Israel in a "council" of his earthly "sons". The New Testament authors, writing in a time when monotheism had become the normative Jewish belief, considered these passages to be prophetic of God the Son becoming the Son of God. The New Testament books of Acts of the Apostles and the Epistle to the Hebrews both quote แม่แบบ:Bibleref2, "You are my Son; today I have become your Father."

New Testament[แก้]

In medieval art God was depicted in the Garden of Eden and other pre-Incarnation subjects as God the Son, already with the appearance of Jesus, as here in The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch.
A typical image of Jesus Christ, venerated by Catholics, Orthodox, and other Trinitarian Christians as God the Son.

The exact phrase "God the Son" is not in the New Testament. Later theological use of this expression reflects what came to be standard interpretation of New Testament references, understood to imply Jesus' divinity, but the distinction of his person from that of the one God he called his Father. As such, the title is associated more with the development of the doctrine of the Trinity than with the Christological debates. There are over 40 places in the New Testament where Jesus is given the title "the Son of God", but scholars don't consider this to be an equivalent expression. "God the Son" is rejected by antitrinitarians, who view this reversal of the most common term for Christ as a doctrinal perversion and as tending towards tritheism. Other branches of Christianity believe Jesus to be the incarnation of the Holy Ghost and the archangel Michael to be God the Son.

Matthew cites Jesus as saying, "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God."แม่แบบ:Bibleref2c The gospels go on to document a great deal of controversy over Jesus being the Son of God in a unique way. The book of the Acts of the Apostles and the letters of the New Testament, however, record the early teaching of the first Christians — those who believed Jesus to be both the Son of God, the Messiah, a man appointed by God, as well as God himself. This is evident in many places. However, the early part of the book of Hebrews addresses the issue in a deliberate, sustained argument, citing the scriptures of the Hebrew Bible as authorities. For example, the author quotes แม่แบบ:Bibleref2 as addressed by Yahweh to Jesus.

The author of Hebrews' description of Jesus as the exact representation of the divine Father has parallels in a passage in Colossians.

John's gospel quotes Jesus at length regarding his relationship with his heavenly Father. It also contains two famous attributions of divinity to Jesus.

The most direct references to Jesus as God are found in various letters.

The biblical basis for later Trinitarian statements in creeds is the early baptism formula found in แม่แบบ:Bibleref2.

Judaism[แก้]

ดูเพิ่มเติมที่: Judaism's view of Jesus
ดูเพิ่มเติมที่: Sons of God

In Judaism the phrase God the Son is not known and does not appear in the Hebrew Bible.[2] The concept of an incarnation of God is strictly rejected. [ต้องการอ้างอิง] The status of Jesus as a messiah is rejected in Judaism, as is the concept of the Tanach being prophetic in regards to Jesus. According to the Jewish religious tradition, Judaism does not consider the Hebrew Bible to be prophetic of Jesus becoming the Son of God:

  • แม่แบบ:Bibleref2. "He Who sits in heaven will laugh, the Lord will mock them. Then He will speak to them in His anger, and in His wrath He will terrify them: "I Myself have anointed My king, over Zion, My holy mountain![3] " I am obliged to proclaim that HASHEM said to me, "You are My son, I have begotten you this day. Ask of Me and I will make nations your inheritance, and the ends of the world your possession. You will smash them with an iron rod ; you will shatter them like a potter's vessel.[4] " And now , O kings, be wise; be disciplined, O judges of the earth. Serve HASHEM with awe that you may rejoice when there is trembling."[5] The psalm is about King David encountering the Philistines.[6] David is called the begotten son of HASHEM.

The expression "God the Son" is not used in the Hebrew Bible. However, it has the following references to "sons of God":

  • แม่แบบ:Bibleref2. "And it came to pass when Man began to increase upon the face of the ground and daughters of man[7] were born to them, the sons of the rulers[8][9] saw that the daughters of man were good and they took themselves wives from whomever they chose. And HASHEM said, "My spirit shall not contend evermore concerning Man since he is but flesh; his days shall be a hundered and twenty years[10] " The Nephilim[11] were on earth in those days - and also afterward when the sons of the rulers would consort with the daughters of man, who would bear to them. They were the mighty who, from old, were men of devastation."[6]
  • แม่แบบ:Bibleref2. "A psalm of Asaph: God stands in the Divine assembly, in the midst of judges shall He judge. Until when will you[12] judge lawlessly and favor the presence of the wicked, Selah? Dispense justice for the needy and the orphan; vindicate the poor and impoverished. Rescue the needy and destitute, and deliver them from the hand of the wicked. They do nor know nor do they understand,[13] they walk in darkness; all the foundations of the earth collapse. I said, "You are angelic, sons of the Most High are you all. Arise, O God,[14] judge the earth, for You shall seek Your inheritance among all the nations."[6]
  • แม่แบบ:Bibleref2. "Yet the number of the Children of Israel will be like the sand of the sea, which can neither be measured nor counted; and it will happen that in the place [of their exile] where it was said to them, 'You are My people', it will be said to them, 'Children of the living God'.".[6]

In the post-biblical literature, however, the Biblical title Son of God is used in several ways only some of which refer to the Jewish Messiah. According to Judaism, it is falsely applied to Jesus.

In Islam[แก้]

Islam rejects that Jesus was God incarnate or God the Son, stating that he was a man who, like other prophets, had been divinely chosen to spread God's message. Islamic texts forbid the association of partners with God (shirk), emphasizing the notion of God's divine oneness (tawhīd). Numerous titles are given to Jesus in the Qur'an, such as al-Masīḥ ("the messiah; the anointed one" i.e. by means of blessings), although it does not correspond with the meaning accrued in Christian belief. Jesus is seen in Islam as a precursor to Muhammad, see also Paraclete, and is believed by Muslims to have foretold the latter's coming. In Islam (อาหรับ: عيسى`Īsā) is a messenger of God who had been sent to guide the Children of Israel (banī isrā'īl) with a new scripture, the Injīl (gospel).[18] The Qur'an, believed by Muslims to be God's final revelation, states that Jesus was born to Mary (Arabic: Maryam) as the result of virginal conception, a miraculous event which occurred by the decree of God (Arabic: Allah). To aid him in his quest, Jesus was given the ability to perform miracles, all by the permission of God. According to Islamic texts, Jesus was neither killed nor crucified, but rather he was raised alive up to heaven. Islamic traditions narrate that he will return to earth near the day of judgment to restore justice and defeat al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl (lit. "the false messiah", also known as the Antichrist)

Although Jesus is highly respected prophet in Islam, and considered to be the Messiah, Muslims do not believe that he was the son of God. Muslims consider Jesus the son of the virgin Mary as great prophet as same as others prophets: Noah, Abraham, Moses, Muhammad. Muslims believe that associating others with God in any kind of worship is polytheism, an unforgiven sin, even if the associated person is an angel or prophet.

ดูเพิ่ม[แก้]

อ้างอิง[แก้]

  1. "A brief account of the early Church councils and the Church fathers shows that they adopted the doctrine of the eternal subordination of the Son, and that this doctrine continues in the Church as orthodoxy to this day." Stephen D. Kovach and Peter R. Schemm Jr., "A Defense of the Doctrine of the Eternal Subordination of the Son", Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42 (2542): 461–476.
  2. Jewish Encyclopedia: The Pious as Sons of God. "The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha contain a few passages in which the title "son of God" is given to the Messiah (see Enoch, cv. 2; IV Esdras vii. 28-29; xiii. 32, 37, 52; xiv. 9); but the title belongs also to any one whose piety has placed him in a filial relation to God (see Wisdom ii. 13, 16, 18; v. 5, where "the sons of God" are identical with "the saints"; comp. Ecclus. [Sirach] iv. 10). It is through such personal relations that the individual becomes conscious of God's fatherhood, and gradually in Hellenistic and rabbinical literature "sonship to God" was ascribed first to every Israelite and then to every member of the human race (...)" By: Kaufmann Kohler, Emil G. Hirsch
  3. King David is titled as Hashem's anointed one.
  4. Rashi comments that the psalm alludes to the encounter between the nations and the Messiah.
  5. If the gentile kings and judges turn away from sin, they too will rejoice when the wicked tremble in fear of God's wrath (Rashi).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 The Stone Edition Tanach, Rabbi Nossom Scherman (Ed.), Mesorah Publications Ltd., Brooklyn, New York, 1998
  7. 'Daughters of man' refers to the general populace (Saadiah Gaon).
  8. The 'sons of the rulers' were sons of princes and judges, for elohim always implies rulership (Rashi).
  9. Translated "devine beings" by the liberal Torah ed. of Plaut: "Other translate as 'sons of God'. Hurrian, Phoenician, and Greek myths told of Titans, supermen, of great stature and strength, who were supposedly the offsprings of unions between gods and men. (...) Another view is that the text in Gen. 6.2 records an angelic sin and that แม่แบบ:Bibleref2 are references to this incident (...) The phrase has also been taken as recording interclass marital unions: sons of the aristocracy married daughters of the common folk."; The Tora, A modern commentary; Commented by W. Gunther Plaut, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, New York, 1981
  10. God would wait 120 years before bringing the Flood, to give mankind ample opportunity to repent.(Rashi, Ramban).
  11. The Nephilim were giants.
  12. The veres 2-4 are addressed directly to Judges who fail to carry out their responsibilities.
  13. Many judges are unaware of their awesome responsibility; they walk in darkness, blinded by prejudice and selfishness.
  14. Since human judges are corrupt, You must see to it that justice prevails in the world.
  15. Other translate as 'sons of God'
  16. That is the [angelic] adversary.
  17. Other translate as 'sons of God' or 'angels'.
  18. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, p.158

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