ผู้ใช้:Xiengyod/พระราม

จากวิกิพีเดีย สารานุกรมเสรี
ไปยังการนำทาง ไปยังการค้นหา

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พระราม (IAST: rāma, Devanāgarī: राम; พม่า: ရာမ; เขมร: ព្រះ​រាម; ลาว: ພຣະຣາມ; มลายู: Megat Seri Rama; ตากาล็อก: Rajah Bantugan) หรือในอีกชื่อคือ รามจันทระ रामचंद्र [1] เป็นอวตารปารที่ 7 ของพระวิษณุในศาสนาฮินดู[2] และเป็นกษัตริย์ในตำนานแห่งกรุงอโยธยาในตำนานอินเดียโบราณ

พระรามเป็นเทพเจ้าที่ได้รับการเคารพนับถืออย่างสูงในศาสนาฮินดู โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งในลัทธิไวษณพนิกาย และในคัมภีร์บูชาพระนารายณ์ในเอเชียใต้และเอเชียตะวันออกเฉียงใต้[3] รายละเอียดส่วนใหญ่เกี่ยวกับชีวประวัติของพระรามปรากฏอยู่ในมหากาพย์เรื่องรามายณะ หนึ่งในมหากาพย์สำคัญ 2 เรื่องของอินเดีย[4] Born as the eldest son of Kausalya and Dasharatha, king of Ayodhya, Rama is referred to within Hinduism as Maryada Purushottama,[5] literally the Perfect Man or Lord of Self-Control or Lord of Virtue. Rama is the husband of Sita, whom Hindus consider to be an avatar of Lakshmi and the embodiment of perfect womanhood.[5][6]

Rama's life and journey is one of perfect adherence to dharma despite harsh tests of life and time. He is pictured as the ideal man and the perfect human. For the sake of his father's honour, Rama abandons his claim to Kosala's throne to serve an exile of fourteen years in the forest.[7] His wife Sita and brother Lakshmana, being unable to live without Rama, decide to join him, and all three spend the fourteen years in exile together. This leads to the kidnapping of Sita by Ravana, the Rakshasa (Asura) monarch of Lanka. After a long and arduous search that tests his personal strength and virtue, Rama fights a colossal war against Ravana's armies. In a war of powerful and magical beings, greatly destructive weaponry and battles, Rama slays Ravana in battle and liberates his wife. Having completed his exile, Rama returns to be crowned king in Ayodhya (the capital of his kingdom) and eventually becomes emperor,[7] after which he reigns for eleven thousand years – an era of perfect happiness, peace, prosperity and justice known as Rama Rajya.

Rama's courage in searching for Sita and fighting a terrible war to rescue his wife and their honour is complemented by Sita's absolute devotion to her husband's love, and perfect chastity despite being Ravana's captive. Rama's younger brothers, namely Lakshmana, Shatrughna and Bharata strongly complement his piety, virtue and strength,[7] and they are believed by many to belong to the Maryada Purushottama and the Seventh Avatara, mainly embodied by Rama. Rama's piety and virtue attract powerful and devoted allies such as Hanuman and the Vanaras of Kishkindha, with whose help he rescues Sita.[7] The legend of Rama is deeply influential and popular in the societies of the Indian subcontinent and across South East Asia. Rama is revered for his unending compassion,[8] courage and devotion to religious values and duty.

  1. Gupta, S.M. (1993). Vishnu and His Incarnations. South Asia Books.
  2. Ganguly, S. (2003). "The Crisis of Indian Secularism". Journal of Democracy. 14 (4): 11–25. doi:10.1353/jod.2003.0076. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2008-04-12.
  3. Dimock Jr, E.C. (1963). "Doctrine and Practice among the Vaisnavas of Bengal". History of Religions. 3 (1): 106–127. doi:10.1086/462474.
  4. Rosen, S. (1994). Vaisnavism: Contemporary Scholars Discuss the Gaudiya Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Hess, L. (2001). "Rejecting Sita: Indian Responses to the Ideal Man's Cruel Treatment of His Ideal Wife*". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 67 (1): 1–32. doi:10.1093/jaarel/67.1.1. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2008-04-12. Unknown parameter |doi_brokendate= ignored (help)
  6. Kanungo, H. "The Distinct Speciality of Lord Jagannath" (PDF). Orissa Review. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2008-04-12.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Griffith, R.T.H. (1870–1874). The Rámáyan of Válmíki. London: Trübner & Co.; Benares: E. J. Lazarus and Co.
  8. Goswami, S.D. (2001). Vaisnava Compassion. La Crosse, Florida: GN Press.