ผู้ใช้:Timekeepertmk/กระบะทราย

จากวิกิพีเดีย สารานุกรมเสรี
ไปยังการนำทาง ไปยังการค้นหา

Nauru had 17 changes of administration between 1989 and 2003.[1] Bernard Dowiyogo died in office in March 2003 and Ludwig Scotty was elected as the president, later being re-elected to serve a full term in October 2004. Following a vote of no confidence on 19 December 2007, Scotty was replaced by Marcus Stephen. Stephen resigned in November 2011, and Freddie Pitcher became President. Sprent Dabwido then filed a motion of no confidence in Pitcher, resulting in him becoming president.[2][3] Following parliamentary elections in 2013 Baron Waqa was elected president.

Nauru has a complex legal system. Its Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice, is paramount on constitutional issues. Other cases can be appealed to the two-judge Appellate Court. Parliament cannot overturn court decisions, but Appellate Court rulings can be appealed to the High Court of Australia.[4][5] In practice, however, this rarely happens. Lower courts consist of the District Court and the Family Court, both of which are headed by a Resident Magistrate, who also is the Registrar of the Supreme Court. There are two other quasi-courts: the Public Service Appeal Board and the Police Appeal Board, both of which are presided over by the Chief Justice.[6]

Administrative divisions[แก้]

ดูเพิ่มเติมที่: List of settlements in Nauru

Nauru is divided into fourteen administrative districts which are grouped into eight electoral constituencies.[6]

Map of Nauru
Nr. District Former Name Area
(ha)
Population
(2005)
No. of
villages
Density
persons / ha
1 Aiwo Aiue 100 1,092 8 10.9
2 Anabar Anebwor 143 502 15 3.5
3 Anetan Añetañ 100 516 12 5.2
4 Anibare Anybody 314 160 17 0.5
5 Baiti Beidi 123 572 15 4.7
6 Boe Boi 66 795 4 12.0
7 Buada Arenibok 266 716 14 2.7
8 Denigomodu Denikomotu 118 2,827 17 24.0
9 Ewa Eoa 117 318 12 2.7
10 Ijuw Ijub 112 303 13 2.7
11 Meneng Meneñ 288 1,830 18 6.4
12 Nibok Ennibeck 136 432 11 3.2
13 Uaboe Ueboi 97 335 6 3.5
14 Yaren Moqua 150 820 7 5.5
  Nauru Naoero 2,130 11,218 169 5.3

Foreign relations[แก้]

นาอูรูใช้ประโยชน์จากการเป็นสมาชิกสหประชาชาติในการรับความช่วยเหลือทางการเงินจากไต้หวันและสาธารณรัฐประชาชนจีน โดยเปลี่ยนการรับรองจากประเทศหนึ่งสู่อีกประเทศผ่านนโยบายจีนเดียว ในวันที่ 21 กรกฎาคม ค.ศ. 2002 นาอูรูได้ลงนามใน

On 21 July 2002, Nauru signed an agreement to establish diplomatic relations with the PRC, accepting $130 million from the PRC for this action.[7] In response, the ROC severed diplomatic relations with Nauru two days later. Nauru later re-established links with the ROC on 14 May 2005,[8] and diplomatic ties with the PRC were officially severed on 31 May 2005.[9] However, the PRC continues to maintain a representative office on Nauru.[10]

In 2008, Nauru recognised Kosovo as an independent country, and in 2009 Nauru became the fourth country, after Russia, Nicaragua, and Venezuela, to recognise Abkhazia, a breakaway region of Georgia. Russia was reported to be giving Nauru $50 million in humanitarian aid as a result of this recognition.[7] On 15 July 2008, the Nauruan government announced a port refurbishment programme, financed with US$9 million of development aid received from Russia. The Nauru government claims this aid is not related to its recognising Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[11]

A significant portion of Nauru's income has been in the form of aid from Australia. In 2001, the MV Tampa, a Norwegian ship that had rescued 438 refugees from a stranded 20-metre-long boat and was seeking to dock in Australia. In what became known as the Tampa affair, the ship was refused entry and boarded by Australian troops. The refugees were eventually loaded onto Royal Australian Navy vessel HMAS Manoora and taken to Nauru to be held in detention facilities which later became part of the Howard government's Pacific Solution. Nauru operated two detention centres known as State House and Topside for these refugees in exchange for Australian aid.[12] By November 2005, only two refugees, Mohammed Sagar and Muhammad Faisal, remained on Nauru from those first sent there in 2001,[13] with Sagar finally resettling in early 2007. The Australian government sent further groups of asylum-seekers to Nauru in late 2006 and early 2007.[14] The refugee centre was closed in 2008,[6] but, following the Australian government's re-adoption of the Pacific Solution in August 2012, it has re-opened it.[15]

Economy[แก้]

ดูบทความหลักที่: Economy of Nauru
A satellite image of Nauru in 2002 from the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

The Nauruan economy peaked in the early 1980s, as it was dependent almost entirely on the phosphate deposits that originate from the droppings of sea birds. There are few other resources, and most necessities are imported.[6][16] Small-scale mining is still conducted by RONPhos, formerly known as the Nauru Phosphate Corporation.[6] The government places a percentage of RONPhos's earnings into the Nauru Phosphate Royalties Trust. The Trust manages long-term investments, which were intended to support the citizens once the phosphate reserves were exhausted.[17] However, because of mismanagement, the Trust's fixed and current assets were reduced considerably, and many never fully recovered. The failed investments included financing Leonardo the Musical in 1993, which was a financial failure.[18] The Mercure Hotel in Sydney[19] and Nauru House in Melbourne were sold in 2004 to finance debts and Air Nauru's only Boeing 737 was repossessed in December 2005. Normal air service resumed after the aircraft was replaced with a Boeing 737–300 airliner in June 2006.[20] In 2005, the corporation sold its property asset in Melbourne, the vacant Savoy Tavern site, for $7.5 million.[21]

The value of the Trust is estimated to have shrunk from A$1.3 billion in 1991 to $138 million in 2002.[22] Nauru currently lacks money to perform many of the basic functions of government; for example, the National Bank of Nauru is insolvent. The CIA World Factbook estimated a GDP per capita of $5,000 in 2005.[23] The Asian Development Bank 2007 economic report on Nauru estimated GDP per capita at $2,400 to $2,715.[24]

There are no personal taxes in Nauru. The unemployment rate is estimated to be 90 percent, and of those who have jobs, the government employs 95 percent.[23][25] The Asian Development Bank notes that although the administration has a strong public mandate to implement economic reforms, in the absence of an alternative to phosphate mining, the medium-term outlook is for continued dependence on external assistance.[22] Tourism is not a major contributor to the economy.[26]

Limestone pinnacles remain after phosphate mining.

In the 1990s, Nauru became a tax haven and offered passports to foreign nationals for a fee.[27] The inter-governmental Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) identified Nauru as one of 15 "non-cooperative" countries in its fight against money laundering. During the 1990s, it was possible to establish a licensed bank in Nauru for only $25,000 with no other requirements. Under pressure from FATF, Nauru introduced anti-avoidance legislation in 2003, after which foreign hot money left the country. In October 2005, after satisfactory results from the legislation and its enforcement, FATF lifted the non-cooperative designation.[28]

From 2001 to 2007, the Nauru detention centre provided a significant source of income for the country. The Nauruan authorities reacted with concern to its closure by Australia.[29] In February 2008, the Foreign Affairs minister, Dr. Kieren Keke, stated that the closure would result in 100 Nauruans losing their jobs, and would affect 10 per cent of the island's population directly or indirectly: "We have got a huge number of families that are suddenly going to be without any income. We are looking at ways we can try and provide some welfare assistance but our capacity to do that is very limited. Literally we have got a major unemployment crisis in front of us."[30] The detention centre was re-opened in August 2012.[15]

Culture[แก้]

ดูบทความหลักที่: Culture of Nauru

Nauruans descended from Polynesian and Micronesian seafarers who believed in a female deity, Eijebong, and a spirit land, an island called Buitani. Two of the 12 original tribal groups became extinct in the 20th century.[6] Angam Day, held on 26 October, celebrates the recovery of the Nauruan population after the two World Wars and the 1920 influenza epidemic.[31] The displacement of the indigenous culture by colonial and contemporary western influences is significant.[32] Few of the old customs have been preserved, but some forms of traditional music, arts and crafts, and fishing are still practised.[33]

There are no daily news publications on Nauru, although there is one fortnightly publication, Mwinen Ko. There is a state-owned television station, Nauru Television (NTV), which broadcasts programmes from New Zealand and Australia, and a state-owned non-commercial radio station, Radio Nauru, which carries programmes from Radio Australia and the BBC.[34]

Australian rules football is the most popular sport in Nauru; it and weightlifting are considered the country's national sports. There is a football league with eight teams.[35] Other sports popular in Nauru include volleyball, netball, fishing and tennis. Nauru participates in the Commonwealth Games and the Summer Olympic Games.[36]

Wildlife[แก้]

Fauna is sparse on the island due to a combination of a lack of vegetation and the consequences of phosphates mining. Many indigenous birds have disappeared or become rare owing to destruction of their habitat.[37] There are only about 60 recorded vascular plant species native to the island, none of which are endemic. Coconut farming, mining, and introduced species have caused serious disturbance to the native vegetation.[38] There are no native land mammals, but there are native insects, land crabs, and birds, including the endemic Nauru Reed Warbler. The Polynesian rat, cats, dogs, pigs, and chickens have been introduced to Nauru from ships.[39] The diversity of the reef marine life makes fishing a popular activity for tourists on the island, as well as SCUBA diving and snorkeling.[40]

See also[แก้]

References[แก้]

  1. "Republic of Nauru Country Brief". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. November 2005. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 May 2006.
  2. Connell, John (January 2006). "Nauru: The first failed Pacific State?". The Round Table. 95 (383): 47–63. doi:10.1080/00358530500379205.
  3. "Nauru profile". BBC News. 24 October 2011. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 June 2012.
  4. "Nauru (High Court Appeals) Act (Australia) 1976". Australian Legal Information Institute. สืบค้นเมื่อ 7 August 2006.
  5. Dale, Gregory (2007). "Appealing to Whom? Australia's 'Appellate Jurisdiction' Over Nauru". International & Comparative Law Quarterly. 56 (3). doi:10.1093/iclq/lei186.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 "Background Note: Nauru". State Department Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. September 2005. สืบค้นเมื่อ 11 May 2006.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Harding, Luke (14 December 2009). "Tiny Nauru struts world stage by recognising breakaway republics". Guardian. สืบค้นเมื่อ 22 June 2010.
  8. Su, Joy (15 May 2005). "Nauru switches its allegiance back to Taiwan from China". Taipei Times. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 June 2012.
  9. "China officially severs diplomatic ties with Nauru". Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. 31 May 2005. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 June 2012.[ลิงก์เสีย]
  10. "Chinese Embassy in Nauru". Gov.cn. 18 January 2006. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 June 2012.
  11. "Nauru expects to earn more from exports after port upgrade with Russian aid". Radio New Zealand International. 15 July 2010. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 July 2010.
  12. White, Michael (2002). "M/V Tampa Incident and Australia's Obligations – August 2001". Maritime Studies. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 June 2012.
  13. Gordon, M (5 November 2005). "Nauru's last two asylum seekers feel the pain". The Age. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 May 2006.
  14. "Nauru detention centre costs $2m per month". ABC News. 12 February 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 February 2007.
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Asylum bill passes parliament". SBS World News Australia. 16 August 2012. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 August 2012.[ลิงก์เสีย]
  16. "Big tasks for a small island". BBC. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10 May 2006.
  17. Seneviratne, Kalinga (26 May 1999). "Nauru turns to dust". Asia Times. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.[ลิงก์เสีย]
  18. Mellor, William (1 June 2004). "GE Poised to Bankrupt Nauru, Island Stained by Money-Laundering". Bloomberg. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.
  19. Skehan, Craig (9 July 2004). "Nauru, receivers start swapping legal blows". Sydney Morning Herald. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.
  20. "Receivers take over Nauru House". The Age. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.
  21. "Nauru sells last remaining property asset in Melbourne – report". RNZI. 8 April 2005. สืบค้นเมื่อ 22 June 2010.
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Asian Development Outlook 2005 – Nauru". Asian Development Bank. 2005. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 May 2006.
  23. 23.0 23.1 อ้างอิงผิดพลาด: ป้ายระบุ <ref> ไม่ถูกต้อง ไม่มีการกำหนดข้อความสำหรับอ้างอิงชื่อ CIA
  24. "Country Economic Report: Nauru" (PDF). Asian Development Bank. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-07. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 June 2012.
  25. "Paradise well and truly lost". The Economist. 20 December 2001. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 May 2006.
  26. "Nauru". Pacific Islands Trade and Investment Commission. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.[ลิงก์เสีย]
  27. "The Billion Dollar Shack". New York Times. 10 December 2000. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 July 2011.
  28. "Nauru de-listed" (PDF). FATF. 13 October 2005. สืบค้นเมื่อ 11 May 2006.[ลิงก์เสีย]
  29. Topsfield, Hewel (11 December 2007). "Nauru fears gap when camps close". The Age. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.
  30. "Nauru 'hit' by detention centre closure". The Age. 7 February 2008. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.
  31. "Nauru Celebrates Angam Day". UN. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.
  32. Nazzal, Mary (April 2005). "Nauru: an environment destroyed and international law" (PDF). lawanddevelopment.org. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.
  33. "Culture of Nauru". Republic of Nauru. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.
  34. "Country Profile: Nauru". BBC News. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2 May 2006.
  35. "Nauru Australian Football Association". Australian Football League. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 June 2012.[ลิงก์เสีย]
  36. "Nauru Olympic Committee History". Nauru Olympic Committee. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 June 2012.
  37. NAURU Information on Government, People, History, Economy, Environment, Development
  38. อ้างอิงผิดพลาด: ป้ายระบุ <ref> ไม่ถูกต้อง ไม่มีการกำหนดข้อความสำหรับอ้างอิงชื่อ UNCCD
  39. BirdLife International. "Important Bird Areas in Nauru". Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environmental Programme. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 June 2012.
  40. Nauru Ecotourism Tours – Sustainable Tourism & Conservation Laws

รายการอ้างอิง[แก้]