แม่แบบ:Inflation

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แม่แบบ:Inflation/update warning

This template calculates inflation based on several inflation index data sets. The template uses an identification code for an inflation index (usually a country code), an original value, an original start_year and either a specific reference end_year or by default the latest currently available end year,[1] and calculates the equivalent value from historical economic changes between the original and reference years. For example, this template calls the United States inflation table located in the sub-template Template:Inflation/US/dataset to perform the U.S. calculation.

Aside from a convenient way to calculate values from different specified time periods, this template allows a regularly automatically updated calculation of value based on the most recent available inflation data. Whenever inflation tables are updated, potentially annually, all articles using this template have their displayed values updated accordingly.

Usage[แก้]

{{Inflation|index|value|start_year}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|end_year}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|r=decimals|fmt=c}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|r=decimals|fmt=eq}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|r=decimals|fmt=eq|cursign=X}}

The supported countries are listed below, with their index and available data periods:

index Country start_year minimum end_year maximum
AR Argentina[2] 1864 2020
AT Austria[3] แม่แบบ:Inflation/AT/startyear 2018
AU Australia[4] 1850 2018
AU-road Australia [...?][5] แม่แบบ:Inflation/AU-road/startyear 2018
BD Bangladesh[6] 1986 2021
BE Belgium[7] แม่แบบ:Inflation/BE/startyear 2020
BR Brazil[8] แม่แบบ:Inflation/BR/startyear 2020
CA Canada[9] 1688 2021
CH Switzerland[10] แม่แบบ:Inflation/CH/startyear 2021
CL Chile[11] แม่แบบ:Inflation/CL/startyear 2020
CN China[12] แม่แบบ:Inflation/CN/startyear 2019
DE Germany[13]แม่แบบ:Dl 1500 2021
DK Denmark[14] แม่แบบ:Inflation/DK/startyear 2007
EG Egypt[15] แม่แบบ:Inflation/EG/startyear 2018
ES Spain[16] แม่แบบ:Inflation/ES/startyear 2019
FI Finland[17] แม่แบบ:Inflation/FI/startyear 2007
FR France[18] แม่แบบ:Inflation/FR/startyear 2020
GR Greece[19] แม่แบบ:Inflation/GR/startyear 2007
HK Hong Kong[20] แม่แบบ:Inflation/HK/startyear 2020
ID Indonesia[21] แม่แบบ:Inflation/ID/startyear 2007
IL Israel[22] แม่แบบ:Inflation/IL/startyear 2021
IN India[23] 1953 2020
IR Iran[24] แม่แบบ:Inflation/IR/startyear 1398
IS Iceland[25] แม่แบบ:Inflation/IS/startyear 2020
IT Italy[26] แม่แบบ:Inflation/IT/startyear 2020
JP Japan[27] 1868 2019
MX Mexico[28] แม่แบบ:Inflation/MX/startyear 2007
NL Netherlands[29] แม่แบบ:Inflation/NL/startyear 2016
NO Norway[30] แม่แบบ:Inflation/NO/startyear 2017
NZ New Zealand[31] แม่แบบ:Inflation/NZ/startyear 2021
PE Peru[32] แม่แบบ:Inflation/PE/startyear 2017
PH Philippines[33] 1899 2021
PK Pakistan[34] 1960 2021
PL Poland[35] แม่แบบ:Inflation/PL/startyear 2021
PT Portugal[36] แม่แบบ:Inflation/PT/startyear 2007
RU Russia[37] แม่แบบ:Inflation/RU/startyear 2007
SE Sweden[38] แม่แบบ:Inflation/SE/startyear 2009
SG Singapore[39] แม่แบบ:Inflation/SG/startyear 2020
TH Thailand[40] แม่แบบ:Inflation/TH/startyear 2020
TR Turkey[41] แม่แบบ:Inflation/TR/startyear 2021
TW Taiwan[42] แม่แบบ:Inflation/TW/startyear 2021
UK United Kingdom[43] 1209 2021
UK-GDP United Kingdom GDP deflator[44] 1700 2019
US United States[45] 1634 2021
US-GDP United States GDP deflator[46] 1790 2021
ZAR South Africa[47] แม่แบบ:Inflation/ZAR/startyear 2018
KRW South Korea[48] 1906 2017

Parameters[แก้]

  • |index= (parameter 1), required, an index code for one of several available inflation indexes.
  • |value= (parameter 2), required, original price or value from which to base the inflation calculation on. Will ignore any commas, but must not have a currency symbol.
  • |start_year= (parameter 3), required, original year from which to base the inflation calculation on. Must be a year available in the chosen inflation index. As an exception to this, if the current year is specified and no end_year is specified, the template will output value unchanged, as it can be assumed an inflation of zero.
  • |end_year= (parameter 4), optional, reference year for which to calculate inflation. Must be higher (later) than start_year, but not higher than the highest (most recent) year available in the chosen inflation index, and will default to the highest (most recent) available year if omitted.
  • |r=digit sets the digits to which the value must be rounded. A negative value indicates rounding to an upper significant digit, and a positive value indicates a fractional digit including trailing zeros. Defaults to 0, i.e., without cents.
  • |fmt=c will insert thousands separator commas into the calculated value.
  • |fmt=eq will show an equivalent-to phrase, in the format, "equivalent to cursignend_value in end_year". Uses thousands separator commas.
    • |cursign= will set the currency symbol to be shown. Only functions when |fmt=eq is used. Can use advanced symbol formats, but can only precede the calculated value. Default is $.

Examples[แก้]

  • Green tickY {{Inflation|KRW|100|2000}}155
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|DE|100|2000}}70
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|595|1982}}1671
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq}}เท่ากับ $1,671 ในปี 2021
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|800|1942|fmt=eq|r=-3}}เท่ากับ $13,000 ในปี 2021
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|100|2010|2012|fmt=eq|r=2}}เท่ากับ $105.28 ในปี 2012
  • Green tickY US$595 ({{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq}})US$595 (เท่ากับ $1,671 ในปี 2021)
  • Green tickY US$595 ({{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq|cursign=[[United States dollar|US$]]}})US$595 (เท่ากับ US$1,671 ในปี 2021)
  • Green tickY $21 million (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|21|2005|r=2}} million in {{Inflation/year|US}})$21 million (equivalent to $29.14 million in 2021)
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|1|1209|fmt=eq|cursign=£}}เท่ากับ £1,499 ในปี 2021
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|AU|100|2023|fmt=eq}}เท่ากับ $100 ในปี 2023
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US|100|2023}} in {{Inflation/year|US}}$100 in 2021
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|100|1982|fmt=eq|orig=yes|cursign=£}}£100 (เท่ากับ £375 ในปี 2021)

It is possible to use the template in incorrect ways without producing error messages. Please read the warnings and appropriate uses of this template at the beginning of the template description.

  • Red XN {{Inflation|UK|10|1971|fmt=eq}}เท่ากับ $150 ในปี 2021 (Omitting the |cursign= parameter will show the $ symbol by default, which is the wrong currency symbol for British currency)
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|10|1971|fmt=eq|cursign=£}}เท่ากับ £150 ในปี 2021
  • Red XN $595 (${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} today)$595 ($1,671 today) (Misleading time reference)
  • Red XN $595 (${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}})$595 ($1,671 in 2023) (Misleading time reference)
  • Red XN $100 (${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} adjusted for inflation)$100 ($1,671 adjusted for inflation) (Misleading time reference)
  • Green tickY $595 ({{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq}})$595 (เท่ากับ $1,671 ในปี 2021)
  • Green tickY $595 (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} in {{Inflation/year|US}})$595 (equivalent to $1,671 in 2021)
  • Red XN Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, making her worth ${{Inflation|US|1|1975|fmt=c}} billion in {{Inflation/year|US}}.Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, making her worth $5 billion in 2021. (CPI is not for personal wealth of the wealthy – use GDP deflator instead)
  • Red XN Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|1|1975|fmt=c}} billion in {{Inflation/year|US}}.Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to $5 billion in 2021. (CPI is not for personal wealth of the wealthy – use GDP deflator instead)
  • Green tickY Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|1|1975|fmt=c}} billion in {{Inflation/year|US-GDP}}.Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to $4 billion in 2021

การป้อนพารามิเตอร์ที่ไม่ถูกต้องหรือการละเว้นพารามิเตอร์ที่จำเป็นจะส่งผลให้เกิดข้อความแสดงข้อผิดพลาดและจัดหมวดหมู่เป็น หมวดหมู่:หน้าที่มีข้อผิดพลาดในแม่แบบอัตราเงินเฟ้อ

  • Red XN {{Inflation}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index= (parameter 1), |value= (parameter 2) and |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|abc}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |value= (parameter 2) and |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |value= (parameter 2) and |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|abc|€100|1980}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=abc (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|DE|€100|1980}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: NaN, check parameters for non-numeric data: |value=€100 (parameter 2).
  • Red XN {{Inflation|DE|€100|zzzz|zzzz|r=zzzz}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: NaN, check parameters for non-numeric data: |value=€100 (parameter 2), |start_year=zzzz (parameter 3), |end_year=zzzz (parameter 4) and |r=zzzz.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|1200|2024}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year=1200 (parameter 3) is lower than the earliest available year (1850) in index "AU" and |end_year=2024 (parameter 4) is greater than the latest available year (2018) in index "AU".
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2005|2004}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year=2005 (parameter 3) is greater than |end_year=2004 (parameter 4). (see the Limitations section below)
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2005|2024|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |end_year=2024 (parameter 4) is greater than the latest available year (2018) in index "AU".
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2023|2024|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |end_year=2024 (parameter 4) is greater than the latest available year (2018) in index "AU".
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2023|1905|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year=2023 (parameter 3) is greater than |end_year=1905 (parameter 4).
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2024|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year=2024 (parameter 3) is greater than the latest available year (2018) in index "AU".

Tips & tricks[แก้]

Currency conversion[แก้]

This template is currency agnostic, which means it doesn't convert between different currencies. Thus, if you wanted to know how much DM 1,000.00 marks in 1960 are worth nowadays, entering {{Inflation|DE|1000|1960|r=2}} would provide a result (2441.35) still in marks, not in euros.

Consequently, if you need a result in another currency than the one in which the original value is stated, for now you must do the conversion manually, as in the following example which uses the defined conversion rate of € 1 = DM 1.95583:

  • Green tickY {{#expr:({{Inflation|DE|1000|1960|r=2}} / 1.95583) round 2}}1248.24

แม่แบบ:ToDo A currency conversion template to ease these conversion tasks is planned. This section will be updated accordingly once it's developed.

Non-decimal inputs[แก้]

The template does not accept non-decimal inputs such as £sd; these must be decimalized beforehand. For example, if you wanted to know the value of three shillings and sixpence (3s 6d) Sterling in 1950 in 2018, you must convert to the appropriate decimal value (in this case £0.175) for use in the template:

  • Green tickY {{Inflation|GBP|0.175|1950|2018}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=GBP (parameter 1) not a recognized index.

For £sd specifically {{Pounds, shillings, and pence}} can be used to convert to decimal; for other non-decimal currencies, such as the old Indian rupee, templates can be made for decimalization upon request.

Rounding[แก้]

By default the values are calculated to the unit, as for all but very low values cents are undesirable. You can specify rounding with the |r= parameter which determines the number of decimals. To obtain cents use |r=2, but other values can be used, including negative ones: |r=-3, for example, will round to the nearest thousand, |r=-6 to the nearest million, and so on. It is advisable to avoid excessive precision; even if the start value is known to be exact, the template's result will not be because the inflation index tables are rarely accurate to more than about 1%, and a granularity of whole years is used.

Very large results[แก้]

Very large results are expressed in scientific notation ("1.2E+14" instead of "120000000000000") which is normally not desirable. A workaround is to express the value to be inflated with fewer digits, adding a multiplier text such as "trillion" after the result, using the "Show preview" button as many times as needed, changing parameters until the best result is found:

  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|1000000000000|1900|r=-11|fmt=c}}$26,200,000,000,000
  • Red XN ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000000000|1900|r=-12|fmt=c}}$262,000,000,000,000
  • Red XN ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000000|1900|r=-9|fmt=c}} thousand$262,000,000,000 thousand
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000|1900|r=-6|fmt=c}} million$262,000,000 million
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000|1900|r=-3|fmt=c}} billion$262,000 billion
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10|1900|fmt=c}} trillion$262 trillion

The following section provides an automated way of avoiding this trial and error scenario.

Format price[แก้]

{{Format price}} is a template specifically designed to display price values, both big and small, in a readable way. For example, instead of showing the whole of a huge number such as "953,783,409,856.12", it would show it as "954 พันล้าน", while small numbers have their cents part appearing as expected, "1234.5" being properly shown as "1,235".

  • Green tickY ${{Format price|{{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000000000|1900}}}}$262 ล้านล้าน
  • Green tickY ${{Format price|{{Inflation|US-GDP|1000000|1990}}}}$1.79 ล้าน
  • Green tickY DM {{Format price|{{Inflation|DE|1000000|1957|1978}}}}DM 2.01 ล้าน
  • Green tickY £{{Format price|{{Inflation|UK-GDP|1000|1323}}}}£699,508

Documenting[แก้]

It's a good practice to provide a valid reference for the prices calculated with this template in articles where it's used. The template {{Inflation/fn}} was developed to ease this task. It accepts as its single parameter the same country codes used here, and will generate one or more appropriate footnotes. Typically, this is how a piece of text using it looks like:

  • In 1985 a unit cost on average $1,040. This is {{Inflation|US|1040|1985|fmt=eq}}.{{Inflation/fn|US}}

Resulting in this converted code (notice the footnote link at the end):

  • In 1985 a unit cost on average $1,040. This is เท่ากับ $2,620 ในปี 2021.[45]

The footnote thus generated appears whenever {{reflist}} or <references /> is used in an article, usually in its "References" section. See below for the live example in this document's own References section, or click the above generated footnote to jump to it.

Limitations[แก้]

  1. Currently it isn't possible to "de-inflate" a value to what it would have been in a previous year. If you need this functionality, please request it at the talk page. Adding it won't be difficult, but there's no point in doing so before someone actually needs it.
  2. Substitution isn't supported at all. Trying to {{subst:Inflation|...}} would only result in a long sequence of embedded parser code without any direct benefit. If you need to obtain an inflated price only once, please use the special ExpandTemplates page then copy the result and paste it at the desired location.

Developer documentation[แก้]

An inflation series represents templates in the following categories:

  • Template:Inflation/index
  • Template:Inflation/index/dataset
  • Template:Inflation/index/startyear
  • Template:Inflation/doc/index (Which is then displayed at Inflation/name/dataset as the documentation, and needs to refer to the original data source)

Modifications need to be made to:

Current subpages: แม่แบบ:List subpages

TemplateData[แก้]

ด้านล่างนี้คือข้อมูลแม่แบบ เอกสารกำกับสำหรับแม่แบบนี้ซึ่งถูกใช้งานโดยเครื่องมือแก้ไขแบบเห็นภาพและเครื่องมืออื่น ๆ

ข้อมูลแม่แบบสำหรับ Inflation (ยังไม่มีการตรวจสอบ)

This template calculates inflation based on several inflation index data sets. Note that this template defaults to calculating the inflation of Consumer Price Index values: staples, workers' rent, small service bills (doctor's costs, train tickets). For inflating capital expenses, government expenses, or the personal wealth and expenditure of the rich, the US-GDP or UK-GDP indexes should be used, which calculate inflation based on the [[gross domestic product]] (GDP) for the [[United States]] and [[United Kingdom]], respectively.

[จัดการข้อมูลแม่แบบ]

พารามิเตอร์แม่แบบ

This template prefers inline formatting of parameters.

พารามิเตอร์คำอธิบายชนิดสถานะ
Indexindex 1

An index code for one of several available inflation indexes. One of AU, AU-road, BD, CA, DE, IN, JP, PH, PK, UK, UK-GDP, US, US-GDP, ZAR.

ตัวอย่าง
US
สตริงจำเป็น
Valuevalue 2

Original price or value from which to base the inflation calculation on. Will ignore any commas.

ตัวอย่าง
1000
จำนวนจำเป็น
Start yearstart_year 3

Original year from which to base the inflation calculation on. Must be a year available in the chosen inflation index. As an exception to this, if the current year is specified and no 'End year' is specified, the template will output value unchanged, as it can be assumed an inflation of zero.

ตัวอย่าง
1975
จำนวนจำเป็น
End yearend_year 4

Reference year for which to calculate inflation. Must be higher (later) than 'Start year', but not higher than the highest (most recent) year available in the chosen inflation index, and will default to the highest (most recent) available year if omitted.

ตัวอย่าง
2015
จำนวนเลือกได้
Number of digitsr

Sets the digits to which the value must be rounded. A negative value indicates rounding to an upper significant digit, and a positive value indicates a fractional digit including trailing zeros. Defaults to 0.

ค่าปริยาย
0
ตัวอย่าง
1
จำนวนเลือกได้
Formatfmt

"c" will insert thousands separator commas into the calculated value. "eq" will show an equivalent-to phrase, in the format, "equivalent to (cursign)(end_value) in (end_year)". Uses thousands separator commas.

ตัวอย่าง
eq
สตริงเลือกได้
Currency signcursign

Sets the currency symbol to be shown. Only functions when Format "eq" is used. Can use advanced symbol formats, but can only precede the calculated value. Default is $.

ค่าปริยาย
$
ตัวอย่าง
สตริงเลือกได้

See also[แก้]

References[แก้]

  1. How recently depends on how the data set for each country is constructed, and on the internal tables being updated accordingly every January. Some data tables provide inflation data up to December 31, 2022, others up to roughly June-July 2022, and others yet up to December 31, 2021.
  2. 1864 to 1912: Jeffrey G. Williamson, 1998. Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Latin America, Appendix, Nominal Wage, Cost of Living, Real Wage, and Land Price in Argentina, 1864-1940 Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1853, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research, 1913 to 1993: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1994 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  3. 1440 to 1799: Robert C. Allen, Prices and Wages in Vienna, 1439-1913 1800 to 2018: Gerald Hubmann & Clemens Jobst & Michaela Maier, 2020. A new long-run consumer price index for Austria (1800–2018), Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank, issue Q3/20, pages 61-88.
  4. 1850-1899: McLean, I.W. (1999), Consumer Prices and Expenditure Patterns in Australia 1850–1914. Australian Economic History Review, 39: 1-28. For later years, Australian Consumer Price Inflation figures follow the Long Term Linked Series provided in Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011) 6461.0 – Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2011 as explained at §§3.10–3.11; this series comprises "from 1901 to 1914, the A Series Retail Price Index; from 1914 to 1946–47, the C Series Retail Price Index; from 1946–47 to 1948–49, a combination of the C Series Index, excluding rent, and the housing group of the CPI; and from 1948–49 onwards, the CPI." (3.10). Retrieved May 4, 2015
  5. Inflated values automatically calculated using the "3101 Road and bridge construction Australia" series provided in Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014) 6427.0 – Producer Price Indexes, Australia, Mar 2014: Table 17 Output of the Construction industries, subdivision and class index numbers. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  6. Bangladesh – Consumer price index, International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.[ไม่แน่ใจ ]
  7. 1399 to 1849: Robert C. Allen, Prices and Wages in Antwerp & Belgium, 1366-1913 1850 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  8. 1820 to 1911: Guilherme Alexandre Tombolo, O PIB brasileiro nos séculos XIX e XX: duzentos anos de flutuações econômicas – Curitiba, 2013 1912 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  9. 1688 to 1923: Geloso, Vincent, A Price Index for Canada, 1688 to 1850 (December 6, 2016). Afterwards, Canadian inflation numbers based on Statistics Canada tables 18-10-0005-01 (formerly CANSIM 326-0021) "Consumer Price Index, annual average, not seasonally adjusted". Statistics Canada. สืบค้นเมื่อ April 17, 2021. and table 18-10-0004-13 "Consumer Price Index by product group, monthly, percentage change, not seasonally adjusted, Canada, provinces, Whitehorse, Yellowknife and Iqaluit". Statistics Canada. สืบค้นเมื่อ April 17, 2021.
  10. 1501 to 1813: Roman Studer, Pascal Schuppli, Deflating Swiss Prices over the Past Five Centuries, Historical Methods, Summer 2008, Volume 41, Number 3. Afterwards, Switzerland inflation numbers based on FSO-EN to 2015, FSO-DE 2015-2021 "CPI, Global index on all index bases". Federal Statistical Office. สืบค้นเมื่อ May 14, 2021. and table 18-10-0004-13 "LIK, Totalindex auf allen Indexbasen". Federal Statistical Office. สืบค้นเมื่อ May 14, 2021.
  11. 1661-1805: Leticia Arroya Abad, Elwyn A. R. Davies, and Jan Luiten van Zanden, Prices and wages in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru 1807 : Guilherme Alexandre Tombolo, Evolución de los Precios en el Siglo XIX 1810 to 2006: 2007 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  12. 961-1359: Peter Lindert, China, rice prices 961-1910 (Liu) 1360 to 1729: Robert Allen, Jean-Pascal Bassino, Debin Ma, Christine Moll-Murata, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden Beijing prices 1738-1923 1924 to 1929: Yuru Wang, Urban Wholesale Price Change and Economic Growth in Modern China 1930 to 1948: Chang, K. (1963). The inflationary spiral; the experience in China, 1939-1950 [Cambridge]: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1949 to 1951: Burdekin, R.C.K., Wang, F. A Novel End to the Big Inflation in China in 1950 Economics of Planning 32, 211–229 (1999). 1952 to 1978: Gregory C. Chow, Peng Wang, The empirics of inflation in China, Economics Letters, Volume 109, Issue 1, 2010, ISSN 0165-1765. 1979 to 2019: National Bureau of Statistics of China, Consumer Price Index
  13. 1500 to 1850: Ulrich Pfister, 2010. "Consumer prices and wages in Germany, 1500 - 1850," CQE Working Papers 1510, Center for Quantitative Economics (CQE), University of Muenster. 1851-1882: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998. After 1883, German inflation numbers based on data available from the Deutsches Statistisches Bundesamt archive and GENESIS database.
  14. Kim Abildgren (2010) Consumer prices in Denmark 1502–2007, Scandinavian Economic History Review, 58:1, 2-24
  15. 1915 to 1993: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998 1994 to 2018: World Bank Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) - Egypt, Arab Rep.
  16. 1276 to 1850: Álvarez-Nogal, C. and De La Escosura, L.P. (2013), The rise and fall of Spain (1270–1850) 1. The Economic History Review, 66: 1-37. 1851 to 2019: MeasuringWorth, What Was Spain's GDP Then?, Consumer Price Index
  17. Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  18. 1262 to 1789 Leonardo Ridolfi, The French economy in the longue durée: a study on real wages, working days and economic performance from Louis IX to the Revolution (1250–1789), Ridolfi, L. (2019). Six Centuries of Real Wages in France from Louis IX to Napoleon III: 1250–1860. The Journal of Economic History, 79(3), 589-627. 1798 to 1809: Mitchell, B. R. (Brian R.). (1975). European historical statistics, 1750-1970. New York: Columbia University Press, 1810 to 1903: Sauvy, Alfred. Variations des prix de 1810 à nos jours. Journal de la société française de statistique, Volume 93 (1952) , pp. 88-104 1904 to 2020: Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, Coefficient de transformation de l'euro ou du franc d'une année, en euro ou en franc d'une autre année – Base 1998 – série arrêtée
  19. 1833-1913: South-Eastern European Monetary and Economic Statistics from the Nineteenth Century to World War II, published by: Bank of Greece, Bulgarian National Bank, National Bank of Romania, Oesterreichische Nationalbank, 2014, Athens, Sofia, Bucharest, Vienna. Afterwards, Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  20. 1947 to 1980: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices, afterwards "Consumer Prices, Table E501 : Consumer Price Index at Commodity/Service Section/Group level". www.censtatd.gov.hk. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2021-08-14.
  21. 1820 to 1919: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia. 2000, Appendix 3 Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for Indonesia Java 1820-1940, Outer Provinces 1878-1939, 1920 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  22. "Bank of Israel - Data & Statistics - SeriesData". www.boi.org.il. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2021-05-25.
  23. 1595 to 1872: Bob Allen, Prices and Wages in India, 1595-1930 1873 to 1919: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia. 2000, Appendix 2 Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for India 1873-1939 and Land Prices for the Punjab 1871-1939, 1920 to 1953: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1954 to 2020: Historic inflation India – CPI inflation, Inflation.eu, สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 March 2020
  24. The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (Inflation Rate) (PDF) (ภาษาเปอร์เซีย), Central Bank of Iran, สืบค้นเมื่อ 25 June 2020
  25. Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  26. 1399-1859: Robert Allen, Consumer price indices, nominal / real wages and welfare ratios of building craftsmen and labourers, 1260-1913, Prices and Wages in Naples, 1474-1806, and Prices and Wages in Northern Italy, 1286-1914, 1861 to 1995 Istat, Coefficienti per tradurre valori monetari dei periodi sottoindicati in valori del 2019, 1995 to 2020: Istat, Indice dei prezzi al consumo per l'intera collettività
  27. 1868 to 1938: Williamson J., Nominal Wage, Cost of Living, Real Wage and Land Rent Data for Japan 1831-1938, 1939 to 1945: Bank of Japan Historical Statistics Afterwards, Japanese Historical Consumer Price Index numbers based on data available from the Japanese Statistics Bureau. Japan Historical Consumer Price Index (CPI) – 1970 to 2014 Retrieved 30 July 2014. For between 1946 and 1970, from "昭和戦後史". สืบค้นเมื่อ 2015-01-24.
  28. 1525 to 1770: Leticia Arroya Abad, Elwyn A. R. Davies, and Jan Luiten van Zanden, Prices and wages in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru 1771 to 1930: Challú, A., & Gómez-Galvarriato, A. (2015). MEXICO'S REAL WAGES IN THE AGE OF THE GREAT DIVERGENCE, 1730-1930. Revista De Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, 33 (1), 83-122, 1931 to 1934: Estadísticas Históricas de México, 1935 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998.
  29. Historical Prices and Wages, International Institute of Social History, Value of the Guilder versus Euro
  30. Honningdal Grytten, Ola, 2018. "A continuous consumer price index for Norway 1492-2017," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 26/2018, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Economics.
  31. 1850-2017: "Consumer Price Index, Annual Growth". Data1850. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research. 2018-2021: "Consumers Price Index". Infoshare. StatsNZ.
  32. 1564 to 1824: Leticia Arroya Abad, Elwyn A. R. Davies, and Jan Luiten van Zanden, Prices and wages in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru 1825 to 1900: Leticia Arroyo Abad, 2016. Despegue frustrado: costo de vida y estándares de vida en el Perú durante el siglo XIX, Revista Economía, Fondo Editorial - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, vol. 39(78), pages 119-148. 1901 to 2017: Cesar Martinelli, Marco Vega La Historia Monetaria y Fiscal de Peru, 1960-2017: Experimentos Radicales de Politica, Inflacion y Estabilizacion
  33. 1899 to 1938: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia, Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for the Philippines 1899-1940 1949 to 1958: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998. Afterwards, Consumer Price Index,Inflation Rate and Purchasing Power of the Peso (national averages)
  34. "Claims on central government, etc. (% GDP)". World Bank. Data sourced from World Development Indicators. 19 March 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (ลิงก์) CS1 maint: url-status (ลิงก์)
  35. 1409 to 1913: Robert C. Allen, Consumer price indices, nominal / real wages and welfare ratios of building craftsmen and labourers, 1260-1913, 1914 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 2008 to 2021: World Bank, Consumer price index (2010 = 100) 2008-2021
  36. 1672 to 1928: Pimenta, Carlos Explicação da Inflação em Portugal. ISEG. Lisbon: UTL. 1929 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  37. 1548 to 1675 A.G. Vinogradov, National economy of Russia 1515-2015, 1703 to 1913: Mironov, B. (2010). Wages and Prices in Imperial Russia, 1703-1913. The Russian Review, 69(1), 47-72. Retrieved May 21, 2021, 1914 to 1956: Efremov, Steven M., The Role of Inflation in Soviet History: Prices, Living Standards, and Political Change (2012), 1956 to 1984: CIA, USSR: Estimates of Personal Incomes and Savings 1985 to 1991: Stanley Fischer, 1994. Russia and the Soviet Union Then and Now, NBER Chapters, in: The Transition in Eastern Europe, Volume 1, Country Studies, pages 221-258, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. 1992: Granville, B. (1993). Price and Currency Reform in Russia and the CIS. Russian & East European Finance and Trade, 29(1), 3-67. Retrieved May 21, 2021, 1992 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  38. Edvinsson, R., & Söderberg, J. (2010). The evolution of Swedish consumer prices 1290-2008. In Exchange Rates, Prices, and Wages, 1277-2008 (pp. 412–452).
  39. "M212931 - Consumer Price Index (CPI), 2019 As Base Year, Annual". Department of Statistics, Singapore. 25 January 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 26 January 2021.
  40. 1820 to 1941: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia. 2000, Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for Thailand (Siam) 1820-1939, 1944 to 1993: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1994 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  41. 1585 to 1938: Hakan Berument and Asli Gunay 1 (2007) Inflation Dynamics and its Sources in the Ottoman Empire: 1586–1913, International Review of Applied Economics, 21:2, 207-245, 1939 to 2021: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  42. 1903 to 1958: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1959 to 2021: Statistical Bureau of the Republic of China, Time Series of Consumer Price Indices in Taiwan Area
  43. UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. สืบค้นเมื่อ June 11, 2022.
  44. United Kingdom Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth "consistent series" supplied in Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2018). "What Was the U.K. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. สืบค้นเมื่อ February 2, 2020.
  45. 45.0 45.1 1634–1699: McCusker, J. J. (1997). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States: Addenda et Corrigenda (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1700–1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". สืบค้นเมื่อ April 16, 2022.
  46. Johnston, Louis; Williamson, Samuel H. (2022). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. สืบค้นเมื่อ February 12, 2022. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
  47. South Africa – Consumer price index, International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.[ไม่แน่ใจ ]
  48. 1906 to 1911: Williamson J., Nominal Wage, Cost of Living, Real Wage and Land Rent Data for Korea 1906-1939 1912 to 1939: Mizoguchi, T. (1972). CONSUMER PRICES AND REAL WAGES IN TAIWAN AND KOREA UNDER JAPANESE RULE. Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 13(1), 40-56. Retrieved May 21, 2021. Afterwards, consumer Price index from Statistics Korea. Consumer Price Index by year. Retrieved 3 April 2018

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