ข้ามไปเนื้อหา

ผลต่างระหว่างรุ่นของ "การอับปางของเรืออาร์เอ็มเอสไททานิก"

เก็บกวาดบทความด้วยบอต
(เก็บกวาดบทความด้วยบอต)
==15 เมษายน 1912==
=== เตรียมพร้อมสละเรือ ===
[[Fileไฟล์:EJ Smith2.jpg|thumb|alt=Photograph of a bearded man wearing a white captain's uniform with crossed arms|กัปตัน[[เอ็ดเวิร์ด สมิธ|เอ็ดเวิร์ด เจ. สมิธ]] ในปี 1911]]
เมื่อเวลา 00:05 น. ของวันที่ 15 เมษายน กัปตันสมิธสั่งให้เปิดใช้เรือชูชีพและรวมพลผู้โดยสาร{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=22}} นอกจากนี้ เขายังสั่งให้พนักงานวิทยุเริ่มส่งข้อความขอความช่วยเหลือ ข้อความดังกล่าวได้ระบุต่ำแหน่งของเรือผิดพลาดโดยระบุว่าอยู่ด้านตะวันตกของแนวน้ำแข็ง ทำให้ผู้ช่วยเหลือเดินทางไปยังตำแหน่งที่ผิดไปประมาณ 13.5 ไมล์ทะเล (15.5 ไมล์; 25.0 กม.) {{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=199}}{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=120}} ใต้ดาดฟ้าเรือ น้ำได้ไหลลงสู่จุดต่ำสุดของเรือ เช่น ห้องไปรษณีย์ที่ถูกน้ำท่วม ที่ซึ่งพนักงานคัดแยกจดหมายพยายามรักษาไปรษณีย์ 400,000 ชิ้นบน ''ไททานิก'' อย่างสุดความสามารถ ในที่อื่นๆ สามารถได้ยินเสียงอากาศที่ถูกน้ำเข้าแทนที่{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|pp=118–119}} เหนือพื้นที่เหล่านั้น บริกรได้เดินไปตามทางจากประตูสู่ประตู เพื่อปลุกผู้โดยสารและลูกเรือที่นอนหลับและบอกให้พวกเขาขึ้นไปที่ดาดฟ้าเรือ เนื่องจาก ''ไททานิก'' ไม่มีระบบเสียงประกาศสาธารณะ{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=20}}
 
=== การออกเดินทางของเรือชูชีพ ===
<!--{{further|Lifeboats of the RMS Titanic}}
[[Fileไฟล์:Photograph of a Lifeboat Carrying Titanic Survivors - NARA - 278337.jpg|thumb|right|Lifeboat 6 under capacity]]
At 00:45, lifeboat No. 7 was rowed away from ''Titanic'' with 28&nbsp;passengers on board, despite a capacity of 65. Lifeboat No. 6, on the port side, was the next to be lowered at 00:55. It also had 28&nbsp;people on board, among them the "unsinkable" [[Margaret Brown|Margaret "Molly" Brown]]. Lightoller realised there was only one seaman on board (Quartermaster Robert Hichens) and called for volunteers. Major [[Arthur Godfrey Peuchen]] of the [[Royal Canadian Yacht Club]] stepped forward and climbed down a rope into the lifeboat; he was the only adult male passenger whom Lightoller allowed to board during the port side evacuation.{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=87}} Peuchen's role highlighted a key problem during the evacuation: there were hardly any seamen to man the boats. Some had been sent below to open gangway doors to allow more passengers to be evacuated, but they never returned. They were presumably trapped and drowned by the rising water below decks.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=150}}
[[Fileไฟล์:The Sad Parting - no caption.jpg|thumb|left|upright|''"The Sad Parting"'', illustration of 1912|alt=Illustration of a weeping woman being comforted by a man on the sloping deck of a ship. In the background men are loading other women into a lifeboat.]]
Meanwhile, other crewmen fought to maintain vital services as water continued to pour into the ship below decks. The engineers and firemen worked to vent steam from the boilers to prevent them from exploding on contact with the cold water. They re-opened watertight doors in order to set up extra portable pumps in the forward compartments in a futile bid to reduce the torrent, and kept the electrical generators running to maintain lights and power throughout the ship. Steward F. Dent Ray narrowly avoided being swept away when a wooden wall between his quarters and the third-class accommodation on E deck collapsed, leaving him waist-deep in water.{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=78}} Two engineers, Herbert Harvey and Jonathan Shepherd (who had just broken his left leg after falling into a manhole minutes earlier), died in boiler room No.&nbsp;5 when, at around 00:45, the bunker door separating it from the flooded No.&nbsp;6 boiler room collapsed and they were swept away by "a wave of green foam" according to leading fireman Frederick Barrett, who barely escaped from the boiler room.{{sfn|Halpern|Weeks|2011|p=126}}
 
Much nearer was {{SS|Californian}}, which had warned ''Titanic'' of ice a few hours earlier. Apprehensive at his ship being caught in a large field of drift ice, ''Californian''{{'}}s captain, [[Stanley Lord]], had decided at about 22:00 to halt for the night and wait for daylight to find a way through the ice field.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=159}} At 23:30, 10&nbsp;minutes before ''Titanic'' hit the iceberg, ''Californian''{{'}}s sole radio operator, [[Cyril Furmstone Evans|Cyril Evans]], shut his set down for the night and went to bed.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=161}} On the bridge her Third Officer, Charles Groves, saw a large vessel to starboard around {{convert|10|to|12|mi|abbr=on}} away. It made a sudden turn to port and stopped. If the radio operator of ''Californian'' had stayed at his post fifteen minutes longer, hundreds of lives might have been saved.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=160}} A little over an hour later, Second Officer Herbert Stone saw five white rockets exploding above the stopped ship. Unsure what the rockets meant, he called Captain Lord, who was resting in the chartroom, and reported the sighting.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=162}} Lord did not act on the report, but Stone was perturbed: "A ship is not going to fire rockets at sea for nothing," he told a colleague.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=163}}
 
[[Fileไฟล์:Titanic signal.jpg|thumb|300px300px|left|Distress signal sent at about 01:40 by ''Titanic''{{'}}s radio operator, Jack Phillips, to the [[Russian American Line]] ship SS ''Birma''. This was one of ''Titanic''{{'}}s last intelligible radio messages.|alt=Image of a distress signal reading: "SOS SOS CQD CQD. MGY [Titanic]. We are sinking fast passengers being put into boats. MGY"]]
 
By this time, it was clear to those on ''Titanic'' that the ship was indeed sinking and there would not be enough lifeboat places for everyone. Some still clung to the hope that the worst would not happen: Lucien Smith told his wife Eloise, "It is only a matter of form to have women and children first. The ship is thoroughly equipped and everyone on her will be saved."{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=84}} Charlotte Collyer's husband Harvey called to his wife as she was put in a lifeboat, "Go, Lottie! For God's sake, be brave and go! I'll get a seat in another boat!"{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=84}}
 
==== เรือชูชีพลำสุดท้าย ====
<!--[[Fileไฟล์:Leaving the sinking liner.jpg|right|thumb|upright|Lifeboat No. 15 was nearly lowered onto lifeboat No. 13 (depicted by [[Charles Dixon (artist)|Charles Dixon]]).|alt=Painting of lifeboats being lowered down the side of Titanic, with one lifeboat about to be lowered on top of another one in the water. A third lifeboat is visible in the background.]]
By 01:30, ''Titanic''{{'}}s downward angle in the water was increasing and the ship was now listing slightly more to port, but not more than 5 degrees. The deteriorating situation was reflected in the tone of the messages sent from the ship: "We are putting the women off in the boats" at 01:25, "Engine room getting flooded" at 01:35, and at 01:45, "Engine room full up to boilers."{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=26}} This was ''Titanic''{{'}}s last intelligible signal, sent as the ship's electrical system began to fail; subsequent messages were jumbled and broken. The two radio operators nonetheless continued sending out distress messages almost to the very end.{{sfn|Regal|2005|p=34}}
 
The remaining boats were filled much closer to capacity and in an increasing rush. No.&nbsp;11 was filled with five people more than its rated capacity. As it was lowered, it was nearly flooded by water being pumped out of the ship. No.&nbsp;13 narrowly avoided the same problem but those aboard were unable to release the ropes from which the boat had been lowered. It drifted astern, directly under No.&nbsp;15 as it was being lowered. The ropes were cut in time and both boats made it away safely.{{sfn|Eaton|Haas|1994|p=153}}
[[Fileไฟล์:Reuterdahl - Sinking of the Titanic.jpg|thumb|left|''"Sinking of the Titanic"'' by [[Henry Reuterdahl]]|alt=Painting of a sinking ship with a lifeboat being rowed away from it in the foreground.]]
The first signs of panic were seen when a group of passengers attempted to rush port-side lifeboat No.&nbsp;14 as it was being lowered with 40&nbsp;people aboard. [[Harold Lowe|Fifth Officer Lowe]], who was in charge of the boat, fired three warning shots in the air to control the crowd without causing injuries.{{sfn|Eaton|Haas|1994|p=154}} No.&nbsp;16 was lowered five minutes later. Among those aboard was stewardess [[Violet Jessop]], who would repeat the experience four years later when she survived the sinking of one of ''Titanic''{{'}}s sister ships, {{HMHS|Britannic||2}}, in the First World War.{{sfn|Eaton|Haas|1994|p=155}} Collapsible boat C was launched at 01:40 from a now largely deserted area of the deck, as most of those on deck had moved to the [[stern]] of the ship. It was aboard this boat that White Star chairman and managing director [[J. Bruce Ismay]], ''Titanic''{{'}}s most controversial survivor, made his escape from the ship, an act later condemned as cowardice.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=26}}
 
 
As passengers and crew headed to the stern, where Father [[Thomas Byles]] was hearing confessions and giving absolutions, ''Titanic''{{'}}s band played outside the gymnasium.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=135}} ''Titanic'' had two separate bands of musicians. One was a quintet led by [[Wallace Hartley]] that played after dinner and at religious services while the other was a trio who played in the reception area and outside the café and restaurant. The two bands had separate music libraries and arrangements and had not played together before the sinking. Around 30 minutes after colliding with the iceberg, the two bands were called by Captain Smith who ordered them to play in the first class lounge. Passengers present remember them playing lively tunes such as "[[Alexander's Ragtime Band]]". It is unknown if the two piano players were with the band at this time. The exact time is unknown, but the musicians later moved to the boat deck level where they played before moving outside onto the deck itself.<ref name=Steph>{{cite book|last1=Barczewski|first1=Stephanie|title=Titanic: A Night Remembered|date=2006|publisher=[[A&C Black]]|isbn=9781852855000|pages=[https://archive.org/details/titanicnightreme0000barc/page/132 132–33]}}</ref>
[[Fileไฟล์:Nearer My God To Thee Titanic - no caption.png|thumb|''"Nearer, My God, To Thee"''&nbsp;– cartoon of 1912|alt=Cartoon depicting a man standing with a woman, who is hiding her head on his shoulder, on the deck of a ship awash with water. A beam of light is shown coming down from heaven to illuminate the couple. Behind them is an empty davit.]]
Part of the enduring folklore of the ''Titanic'' sinking is that the musicians played the hymn "[[Nearer, My God, to Thee]]" as the ship sank, but this appears to be dubious.{{sfn|Howells|1999|p=128}} The claim surfaced among the earliest reports of the sinking,{{sfn|Howells|1999|p=129}} and the hymn became so closely associated with the ''Titanic'' disaster that its opening bars were carved on the grave monument of ''Titanic''{{'}}s bandmaster, Wallace Hartley, one of those who perished.{{sfn|Richards|2001|p=395}} Violet Jessop said in her 1934 account of the disaster that she had heard the hymn being played.{{sfn|Howells|1999|p=128}} In contrast, Archibald Gracie emphatically denied it in his own account, written soon after the sinking, and Radio Operator Harold Bride said that he had heard the band playing ragtime, then "Autumn",{{sfn|Richards|2001|p=396}} by which he may have meant [[Archibald Joyce]]'s then-popular waltz "Songe d'Automne" (Autumn Dream). George Orrell, the bandmaster of the rescue ship, ''Carpathia'', who spoke with survivors, related: "The ship's band in any emergency is expected to play to calm the passengers. After ''Titanic'' struck the iceberg the band began to play bright music, dance music, comic songs&nbsp;– anything that would prevent the passengers from becoming panic-stricken&nbsp;... various awe-stricken passengers began to think of the death that faced them and asked the bandmaster to play hymns. The one which appealed to all was 'Nearer My God to Thee'."{{sfn|Turner|2011|p=194}} According to Gracie, who was near the band until that section of deck went under, the tunes played by the band were "cheerful" but he didn't recognise any of them, claiming that if they had played 'Nearer, My God, to Thee' as claimed in the newspaper "I assuredly should have noticed it and regarded it as a tactless warning of immediate death to us all and one likely to create panic."{{sfn|Gracie|1913|p=20}} Several survivors who were among the last to leave the ship claimed that the band continued playing until the slope of the deck became too steep for them to stand, Gracie claimed that the band stopped playing at least 30 minutes before the vessel sank. Several witnesses support this account including A. H. Barkworth, a first-class passenger who testified: "I do not wish to detract from the bravery of anybody, but I might mention that when I first came on deck the band was playing a waltz. The next time I passed where the band was stationed, the members had thrown down their instruments and were not to be seen."<ref name="Steph"/>
 
 
Archibald Gracie was also heading aft, but as he made his way towards the stern he found his path blocked by "a mass of humanity several lines deep, covering the boat deck, facing us"{{sfn|Winocour|1960|pp=138–39}}&nbsp;– hundreds of steerage passengers, who had finally made it to the deck just as the last lifeboats departed. He gave up on the idea of going aft and jumped into the water to get away from the crowd.{{sfn|Winocour|1960|pp=138–39}} Others made no attempt to escape.
[[Fileไฟล์:Titanic the sinking.jpg|thumb|Illustration of the sinking of the ''Titanic'']]-->
 
=== นาทีสุดท้ายก่อนอับปาง ===
 
==== วาระสุดท้ายของ ''ไททานิก'' ====
<!--[[Fileไฟล์:Titanic's sinking stern.jpg|thumb|left|300px300px|Imagined view of ''Titanic''{{'s}} final plunge]]
''Titanic'' was subjected to extreme opposing forces&nbsp;– the flooded bow pulling her down while the air in the stern kept her to the surface&nbsp;– which were concentrated at one of the weakest points in the structure, the area of the engine room hatch. Shortly after the lights went out, the ship split apart. The submerged bow may have remained attached to the stern by the keel for a short time, pulling the stern to a high angle before separating and leaving the stern to float for a few moments longer. The forward part of the stern would have flooded very rapidly, causing it to tilt and then settle briefly until sinking.{{sfn|Halpern|Weeks|2011|p=119}}{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=29}}<ref>{{cite web|url=https://video.nationalgeographic.com/tv/00000144-2f3a-df5d-abd4-ff7f31f90000|title=Titanic Sinking CGI|publisher=National Geographic Channel|accessdate=17 February 2016}}</ref> The ship disappeared from view at 02:20, 2 hours and 40 minutes after striking the iceberg. Thayer reported that it rotated on the surface, "gradually [turning] her deck away from us, as though to hide from our sight the awful spectacle&nbsp;... Then, with the deadened noise of the bursting of her last few gallant bulkheads, she slid quietly away from us into the sea."{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=29}}
 
 
=== ผู้โดยสารและลูกเรือในน้ำ ===
<!--[[Fileไฟล์:Titanic watch.jpg|thumb|Pocket watch retrieved from the wreck site, stopped showing a time of 2:28|alt=Photograph of a brass pocket watch on a stand, with a silver chain curled around the base. The watch's hands read 2:28.]]
 
In the immediate aftermath of the sinking, hundreds of passengers and crew were left dying in the icy sea, surrounded by debris from the ship. ''Titanic''{{'}}s disintegration during her descent to the seabed caused buoyant chunks of debris&nbsp;– timber beams, wooden doors, furniture, panelling and chunks of cork from the bulkheads&nbsp;– to rocket to the surface. These injured and possibly killed some of the swimmers; others used the debris to try to keep themselves afloat.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=139}}
The noise of the people in the water screaming, yelling, and crying was a tremendous shock to the occupants of the lifeboats, many of whom had up to that moment believed that everyone had escaped before the ship sank. As Beesley later wrote, the cries "came as a thunderbolt, unexpected, inconceivable, incredible. No one in any of the boats standing off a few hundred yards away can have escaped the paralysing shock of knowing that so short a distance away a tragedy, unbelievable in its magnitude, was being enacted, which we, helpless, could in no way avert or diminish."{{sfn|Barratt|2010|pp=199–200}}
 
[[Fileไฟล์:Archibald Gracie IV.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Archibald Gracie IV|Colonel Archibald Gracie]], one of the survivors who made it to collapsible lifeboat B. He never recovered from his ordeal and died eight months after the sinking.|alt=Photograph of a moustached middle-aged man in a dark suit and waistcoat, sitting in a chair while looking at the camera]]
Only a few of those in the water survived. Among them were Archibald Gracie, Jack Thayer and Charles Lightoller, who made it to the capsized collapsible boat B. Around 12 crew members climbed on board Collapsible B, and they rescued those they could until some 35 men were clinging precariously to the upturned hull. Realising the risk to the boat of being swamped by the mass of swimmers around them, they paddled slowly away, ignoring the pleas of dozens of swimmers to be allowed on board. In his account, Gracie wrote of the admiration he had for those in the water; "In no instance, I am happy to say, did I hear any word of rebuke from a swimmer because of a refusal to grant assistance... [one refusal] was met with the manly voice of a powerful man... 'All right boys, good luck and God bless you'."{{sfn|Gracie|1913|p=89}} Several other swimmers (probably 20 or more) reached Collapsible boat A, which was upright but partly flooded, as its sides had not been properly raised. Its occupants had to sit for hours in a foot of freezing water,{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=224}} and many died of hypothermia during the night.
 
 
=== การช่วยชีวิตและการออกเดินทาง ===
[[Fileไฟล์:Titanic lifeboat.jpg|thumb|เรือชูชีพพับได้ ดี ถ่ายจากดาดฟ้าเรือ ''คาร์เพเทีย'' ในตอนเช้าวันที่ 15 เมษายน 1912|alt=Photograph of a lifeboat, filled with people wearing life jackets, being rowed towards the camera.]]
 
ผู้รอดชีวิตของเรือ ''ไททานิก'' ได้รับการช่วยเหลือในเวลาประมาณ 04:00 น. วันที่ 15 เมษายนโดย[[อาร์เอ็มเอส คาร์เพเทีย]] ที่แล่นด้วยความเร็วเต็มที่มาตลอดคืนบนเส้นทางเสี่ยงอันตราย ซึ่งเรือต้องเลี้ยวหลบภูเขาน้ำแข็งหลายลูกตลอดเส้นทางมายังจุดอับปาง{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=238}} แสงไฟจาก ''คาร์เพเทีย'' ถูกพบครั้งแรกราวเวลา 03:30 น.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=238}} ซึ่งสร้างกำลังใจให้ผู้รอดชีวิตเป็นอย่างมาก แม้ว่าจะต้องใช้เวลาอีกหลายชั่วโมงกว่าที่ทุกคนจะถูกพาขึ้นเรือ <!--The 30 or more men on collapsible B finally managed to board two other lifeboats, but one survivor died just before the transfer was made.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|pp=240–41}} Collapsible A was also in trouble and was now nearly awash; many of those aboard (maybe more than half) had died overnight.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=140}} The remaining survivors&nbsp;– an unknown number of men, estimated to be between 10–11 and more than 20, and one woman&nbsp;– were transferred from A into another lifeboat, leaving behind three bodies in the boat, which was left to drift away. It was recovered a month later by the White Star liner {{RMS|Oceanic|1899|6}} with the bodies still aboard.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|pp=240–41}}
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