ผู้ใช้:Waniosa Amedestir/ทดลองเขียน 3

จากวิกิพีเดีย สารานุกรมเสรี
ไปยังการนำทาง ไปยังการค้นหา

Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque[แก้]

Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque
DIMG 6359 (1874021030).jpg
ศาสนา
ศาสนาIslam
ที่ตั้ง
ที่ตั้งGibraltar
พิกัดภูมิศาสตร์36°06′43.3″N 5°20′44.2″W / 36.112028°N 5.345611°W / 36.112028; -5.345611พิกัดภูมิศาสตร์: 36°06′43.3″N 5°20′44.2″W / 36.112028°N 5.345611°W / 36.112028; -5.345611
สถาปัตยกรรม
ประเภทMosque
เริ่มก่อตั้ง8 August 1997

The Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque, also known as the King Fahd bin Abdulaziz al-Saud Mosque or the Mosque of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, is a mosque located at Europa Point in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, a peninsula connected to southern Spain. The mosque faces south towards the Strait of Gibraltar and Morocco several kilometres away.

Construction[แก้]

The building was a gift from King Fahd of Saudi Arabia and took two years to build at a cost of around £5 million. It was officially inaugurated on 8 August 1997.[1]

It is the southernmost mosque in continental Europe, and is one of the largest mosques in a non-Muslim country.[2]

Description[แก้]

The Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque,[3] also known as the King Fahad Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Mosque, is one of the most often visited places in Gibraltar.[4] It is said to be the largest mosque to exist in a non-Islamic country.[4][5] First impressions of the mosque are fairly simple and bland, but the design is very complex and well thought out. Its first floor comprises six classrooms, a conference hall, a library, a kitchen, bathroom, housing for the caretaker, morgue, offices for administration purposes, and the Imam's house. The main prayer hall is located on the second floor of the building. The ceiling is made up of nine solid brass chandeliers, that cannot be missed when entering the praying area. One of the chandelier is hung from the enormous dome that is at an extreme height. The walls are imported marble stretching across the whole mosque.[5] A women's prayer hall is located on the lower level, along with a nursery, that overlooks the main prayer hall.[6] What makes this mosque special is the location; it is located in between many mountains that brings the beauty of the mosque to light. The Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque is used on a daily basis by Muslims living in Gibraltar and is open to the public during the day.

Complex[แก้]

The mosque complex also contains a school, library, and lecture hall. It is the only purpose-built mosque in Gibraltar to serve the Muslims in the territory who number over 1,000: around 4% of Gibraltar's total population.[7][8]

อ้างอิง[แก้]

  1. DiscoverGibraltar.com – Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque Archived 2012-06-26 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน
  2. McGuire, Kelly J. "The Essential Gibraltar". Lifted Magazine. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 13 July 2011. สืบค้นเมื่อ 22 November 2010.
  3. "Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque | Sightseeing | Gibraltar". www.inyourpocket.com (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 2019-12-09.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Ibrahim-Al-Ibrahim Mosque | Attractions". www.lonelyplanet.com (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 2019-12-09.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque | Welcome to Gibraltar". gibraltar.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2019-12-09.
  6. "Visit Gibraltar". Visit Gibraltar (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 2019-12-09.
  7. "Census of Gibraltar 2001" (PDF). คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม (PDF) เมื่อ September 27, 2007.
  8. "Gibraltar - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov.


มัสยิดตืร์กเมนบาชือรูฮือ[แก้]

Turkmenbashi Ruhy Mosque
Turkmenbashi Ruhy Mosque (5731109818).jpg
ศาสนา
ศาสนาIslam
สถานะActive
ที่ตั้ง
ที่ตั้งGypjak, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan
สถาปัตยกรรม
ประเภทmosque
รูปแบบIslamic
เสร็จสมบูรณ์2004
ความจุ10,000 people[1]

Turkmenbashi Ruhy Mosque or Gypjak Mosque[a] (เติร์กเมน: Türkmenbaşy Ruhy Metjidi / Tүркменбaшы Рухы Mетҗиди) is a mosque in Gypjak, Turkmenistan and the resting place for Saparmurat Niyazov, the leader of Turkmenistan from 1985 to 2006.[2] The mosque is located about 7 กิโลเมตร (4.3 ไมล์) west of the capital, Ashgabat, on the M37 highway.

Overview[แก้]

Niyazov's mausoleum, directly next to the mosque

The mosque, constructed by the French company Bouygues, was built in the home town of President Saparmurat Niyazov. It opened on October 22, 2004 and was built by Niyazov with a mausoleum in preparation for his death. Niyazov died two years later, and was buried in the mausoleum on December 24, 2006.

The mosque has been at the center of controversy as scriptures from both the Quran and the Ruhnama (The Book of the Soul), Niyazov's 'pseudo-spiritual guide to life' are built into the walls. It has outraged many Muslims that the Ruhnama is placed as the Koran's equal. Indeed, despite its capacity to accommodate 10,000 congregants, the mosque is often empty as the Ruhnama inscriptions are considered blasphemous by devout mosquegoers.[3][4]

See also[แก้]

Notes[แก้]

  1. Also spelled Kipchak Mosque.

References[แก้]

  1. Corley, Felix (4 January 2005). "TURKMENISTAN: 2004, the year of demolished mosques". Forum 18 News Service. สืบค้นเมื่อ 25 May 2012.
  2. Koch, Natalie (3 October 2016). "The "Personality Cult" Problematic: Personalism and Mosques Memorializing the "Father of the Nation" in Turkmenistan and the UAE". Central Asian Affairs. 3 (4): 330–359 – โดยทาง Brill.
  3. Door to the Kipchak Mosque Archived 2015-04-02 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน
  4. Türkmenbaşy Ruhy Mosque Atlas Obscura (www.atlasobscura.com). Retrieved on 2019-07-05.

พิกัดภูมิศาสตร์: 38°1′4″N 58°15′10″E / 38.01778°N 58.25278°E / 38.01778; 58.25278{{#coordinates:}}: ไม่สามารถมีป้ายกำกับหลักมากกว่าหนึ่งป้ายต่อหน้าได้

แม่แบบ:Mosques in Turkmenistan


แม่แบบ:Turkmenistan-mosque-stub

สงครามโตโยต้า[แก้]

Toyota War
ส่วนหนึ่งของ the Chadian–Libyan conflict and the Cold War
EUFOR - Tchad (3).jpg
Chadian soldiers on a Toyota Land Cruiser pickup truck in 2008. Vehicles such as these gave the 1986–1987 conflict its name.
วันที่December 16, 1986 – September 11, 1987
(8 months, 3 weeks and 5 days)
สถานที่Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Prefecture, Chad
ผล

Decisive Chadian and French victory

  • Expulsion of Libyan forces from Chad
คู่สงคราม
 Libya
ชาด CDR
แม่แบบ:Country data Palestine Liberation Organization[1][2]
ชาด FANT
ชาด FAP
 ฝรั่งเศส (Opération Épervier)
ผู้บังคับบัญชาและผู้นำ
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Muammar Gaddafi
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Khalifa Haftar[3]
แม่แบบ:Country data PLO Mahmoud Abu Marzouq
Hissène Habré
Hassan Djamous
Idriss Déby
François Mitterrand
Jean Saulnier
กำลัง
Libya:
90,000[4]
300+ tanks
60+ aircraft
CDR:
1,000 militia[5]
FANT:
28,000[6]
FAP:
1,500–2,000[7]
France:
1,500
12+ aircraft
ความสูญเสีย
7,500 killed
1,000 captured
800 tanks & APCs lost
28–32 aircraft destroyed[8]
1,000 killed[8]

สงครามโตโยต้า (อังกฤษ: Toyota War; อาหรับ: حرب تويوتا‎, อักษรโรมัน: Ḥarb Tūyūtā, ฝรั่งเศส: Guerre des Toyota) หรือ มหาสงครามโตโยต้า[9] was the last phase of the Chadian–Libyan conflict, which took place in 1987 in Northern Chad and on the Libyan–Chadian border. It takes its name from the Toyota pickup trucks used, primarily the Toyota Hilux and the Toyota Land Cruiser, to provide mobility for the Chadian troops as they fought against the Libyans, and as technicals.[10] The 1987 war resulted in a heavy defeat for Libya, which, according to American sources, lost one tenth of its army, with 7,500 men killed and US$1.5 billion worth of military equipment destroyed or captured.[11] Chadian forces only suffered 1,000 deaths.[8]

The war began with the Libyan occupation of northern Chad in 1983, when Libya's leader Muammar Gaddafi, refusing to recognize the legitimacy of the Chadian President Hissène Habré, militarily supported the attempt by the opposition Transitional Government of National Unity (GUNT) to overthrow Habré. The plan was foiled by the intervention of France which, first with Operation Manta and later with Operation Epervier, limited Libyan expansion to north of the 16th parallel, in the most arid and sparsely inhabited part of Chad.[12]

In 1986 the GUNT rebelled against Gaddafi, stripping Libya of its main cover of legitimacy for its military presence in Chad. Seeing an occasion to unify Chad behind him, Habré ordered his forces to pass the 16th parallel so as to link with the GUNT rebels (who were fighting the Libyans in Tibesti) in December.[13] A few weeks later a bigger force struck at Fada, destroying the local Libyan garrison. In three months, combining the methods of guerilla and conventional warfare in a common strategy,[14] Habré was able to retake almost all of northern Chad, and in the following months, inflicted new heavy defeats on the Libyans, until a ceasefire putting an end to the conflict was signed in September. The ceasefire left open the issue of the disputed Aouzou Strip, which was eventually assigned to Chad by the International Court of Justice in 1994.

References[แก้]

Africa
Libya
  1. "قصة من تاريخ النشاط العسكري الفلسطيني... عندما حاربت منظمة التحرير مع القذافي ضد تشاد - رصيف22". 4 December 2018.
  2. Talhami, Ghada Hashem (30 November 2018). Palestinian Refugees: Pawns to Political Actors. Nova Publishers. ISBN 9781590336496 – โดยทาง Google Books.
  3. Touchard, Laurent (21 October 2014). "Libye : la deuxième vie de Khalifa Haftar au Tchad et la défaite finale de Ouadi Doum". Jeune Afrique. สืบค้นเมื่อ 28 October 2018.
  4. Metz 2004, p. 254.
  5. The Americana Annual, 1988, 180
  6. Azevedo 1998, p. 119.
  7. The Economic Cost of Soviet Military Manpower Requirements, 143
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Pollack 2002, p. 397
  9. Neville 2018, p. 16.
  10. Clayton 1998, p. 161.
  11. Simons 2004, p. 58
  12. Pollack 2002, pp. 382–385
  13. Nolutshungu 1995, p. 212.
  14. Azevedo 1998, p. 124.

Bibliography[แก้]

อะละวี[แก้]

สำหรับกลุ่มศาสนาอิสลามนิกายชีอะฮ์ที่ส่วนใหญ่อยู่ในประเทศตุรกี ดูที่ ลัทธิอาเลวี สำหรับราชวงศ์ของประเทศโมร็อกโก ซึ่งนับถือศาสนาอิสลามนิกายซุนนี ดูที่ ราชวงศ์อะละวี สำหรับการใช้งานแบบอื่น ดูที่ อะละวี (แก้ความกำกวม)
อะละวี
อะละวียะฮ์
Zulfiqar with inscription.png
ษูลฟะกอร ดาบอะลีที่วาดแบบตามลวดลาย เป็นสัญลักษณ์สำคัญทั้งฝ่ายอะละวีกับชีอะฮ์แบบดั้งเดิม
ประชากรทั้งหมด
ประมาณ 3 ล้าน[1]
ภูมิภาคที่มีประชากรอย่างมีนัยสำคัญ
 ซีเรียน้อยกว่า 3 ล้าน[2]
 ตุรกี500,000-1 ล้าน[3][4]
 เลบานอน100,000[5][6][7]
 เยอรมนี70,000[8][9]
เลบานอน/ที่ราบสูงโกลัน2200 คนอาศัยที่เฆาะญัร ส่วนใหญ่มีทั้งสิทธิพลเมืองซีเรียและอิสราเอล[10]
 ออสเตรเลีย2% เป็นชาวเลบานอนในประเทศออสเตรเลีย[11]
ภาษา
อาหรับ, ตุรกี

อะละวี (อาหรับ: علويةอะละวียะฮ์) หรือ นุซัยรี[14] (อาหรับ: نصيريةนุศ็อยรียะฮ์) เป็นสาขาของศาสนาอิสลามนิกายชีอะฮ์[15][ไม่แน่ใจ] The Alawites revere Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib), considered the first Imam of the Twelver school. The group is believed to have been founded by Ibn Nusayr during the 9th century. Ibn Nusayr was a disciple of the tenth Twelver Imam, Ali al-Hadi and of the eleventh Twelver Imam, Hasan al-Askari. For this reason, Alawites are also called Nusayris. Another name, Ansari, is believed to be a mistransliteration of "Nusayri".

รายงานจากงานวิจัยของเมฮร์ดาด อิซาดีย์ (Mehrdad Izady) มีชาอะละวีอยู่ในประชากรซีเรียร้อยละ 17.2 ซึ่งเพิ่มขึ้นจากร้อยละ 11.8 ใน ค.ศ. 2010[16] and are a significant minority in the Hatay Province of Turkey and northern Lebanon. There is also a population living in the village of Ghajar in the Golan Heights. Alawites form the dominant religious group on the Syrian coast and towns near the coast, which are also inhabited by Sunnis, Christians, and Ismailis. They are often confused with the Alevis, a distinct religious sect in Turkey.[17][18][19][20]

Alawites identify as a separate ethnoreligious group. The Quran is only one of their holy books and texts, and their interpretation thereof has very little in common with the Shia Muslim interpretation but is in accordance with the early Batiniyya and other Muslim ghulat sects. Alawite theology and rituals break from mainstream Shia Islam in several important ways. For one, the Alawites drink wine as Ali's transubstantiated essence in their rituals;[21] while other Muslims abstain from alcohol, Alawites are encouraged to drink socially in moderation. Finally, they also believe in reincarnation.[22]

Alawites have historically kept their beliefs secret from outsiders and non-initiated Alawites, so rumours about them have arisen. Arabic accounts of their beliefs tend to be partisan (either positively or negatively).[23] However, since the early 2000s, Western scholarship on the Alawite religion has made significant advances.[24] At the core of Alawite belief is a divine triad, comprising three aspects of the one God. These aspects, or emanations, appear cyclically in human form throughout history.

อ้างอิง[แก้]

  1. "Primer on the Alawites in Syria - Foreign Policy Research Institute". www.fpri.org. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 April 2021.
  2. "The 'secretive sect' in charge of Syria". BBC News. 17 May 2012. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 April 2021.
  3. Cassel, Matthew. "Syria strife tests Turkish Alawites".
  4. Spencer, Richard (3 April 2016). "Who are the Alawites?". The Telegraph.
  5. http://www.repost.us/article-preview/#!hash=0467cbf01990a23ab00bfe1a45696310 Archived 6 สิงหาคม 2012 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน
  6. "Lebanese Allawites welcome Syria's withdrawal as 'necessary'". The Daily Star. 30 April 2005.
  7. "Lebanon's Alawi: A Minority Struggles in a 'Nation' of Sects". Al Akhbar English. 8 November 2011. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 4 March 2016. สืบค้นเมื่อ 6 July 2012.
  8. "Mitgliederzahlen: Islam", in: Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst|Religionswissenschaftliche Medien- und Informationsdienst e. V. (Abbreviation: REMID), Retrieved 13 February 2017
  9. "Anzahl der Muslime in Deutschland nach Glaubensrichtung im Jahr 2015* (in 1.000)", in: Statista GmbH, Retrieved 13 February 2017
  10. UNIFIL Press Kit p.6
  11. Ghassan Hage (2002). Arab-Australians today: citizenship and belonging (Paperback ed.). Melbourne University Publishing. p. 40. ISBN 0-522-84979-2.
  12. "MOḤAMMAD B. NOṢAYR". Encyclopaedia Iranica. electricpulp.com.
  13. "ḴAṢIBI". Encyclopaedia Iranica. electricpulp.com.
  14. Gisela Procházka-Eisl; Stephan Procházka (2010). The Plain of Saints and Prophets: The Nusayri-Alawi Community of Cilicia (Southern Turkey) and Its Sacred Places. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-447-06178-0. ...for nearly a millenium the term by far most often used in both Oriental and Western sources for this group has been 'Nusayri'.
  15. Madeleine Pelner Cosman; Linda Gale Jones (2009). Handbook to Life in the Medieval World, 3-Volume Set. Infobase Publishing. p. 407. ISBN 978-1-4381-0907-7.
  16. Izady, Michael. "Syria: Ethnic Shift, 2010-mid 2018". Unknown parameter |websit= ignored (help)
  17. Zhigulskaya, Darya. "Alevis vs. Alawites in Turkey: From the General to the Specific". International Journal of Humanities and Education (IJHE). 5 (10): 195–206.
  18. Aringberg-Laanatza, Marianne. “Alevis in Turkey–Alawites in Syria: Similarities and Differences.” In Alevi Identity: Cultural, Religious and Social Perspectives. Edited by Tord Olsson, Elisabeth Özdalga, and Catharina Raudvere, 181–199. Richmond, UK: Curzon, 1998.
  19. "Erdogan, Iran, Syrian Alawites, and Turkish Alevis". The Weekly Standard. 29 March 2012. สืบค้นเมื่อ 6 July 2012.
  20. Gisela Procházka-Eisl; Stephan Procházka (2010). The Plain of Saints and Prophets: The Nusayri-Alawi Community of Cilicia (Southern Turkey) and Its Sacred Places. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-447-06178-0.
  21. Michael Knight (10 December 2009). Journey to the End of Islam. Soft Skull Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-59376-552-1.
  22. Abdel Bari Atwan (2015). Islamic State: The Digital Caliphate. Saqi. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-86356-101-6.
  23. Friedman, Nuṣayrī-ʿAlawīs, 2010: p.68
  24. Friedman, Nuṣayrī-ʿAlawīs, 2010: p.67

อ่านเพิ่ม[แก้]

แหล่งข้อมูลอื่น[แก้]

ลาร์ส วิลก์ส[แก้]

Lars Vilks
Lars Vilks (cropped).jpg
Vilks at the site of Nimis in Kullaberg
เกิดLars Endel Roger Vilks
20 มิถุนายน ค.ศ. 1946(1946-06-20)
Helsingborg, Sweden
เสียชีวิต3 ตุลาคม ค.ศ. 2021 (75 ปี)
Markaryd, Sweden
การศึกษาสูงสุดLund University
อาชีพConceptual art
Sculpture
มีชื่อเสียงจากMuhammad drawings controversy
ผลงาน
Nimis (1980)
Arx (1991)
Muhammad drawings (2007)


Lars Endel Roger Vilks (20 June 1946 – 3 October 2021[1]) was a Swedish visual artist and activist who was known for the controversy surrounding his drawings of Muhammad. He also created the sculptures Nimis and Arx, made of driftwood and rock, respectively. The area where the sculptures are located was proclaimed by Vilks as an independent country, "Ladonia".[2]

Early life and academic career[แก้]

Vilks was born in Helsingborg, Sweden. His father Eino Vilks was of Latvian descent and mother was Swedish.[3] He earned his doctoral degree in art history from Lund University in 1987, and worked at the Oslo National Academy of the Arts from 1988 to 1997. From 1997 to 2003, he was a professor in art theory at the Bergen National Academy of the Arts. As an art theorist, Vilks was a proponent of the institutional theory of art.[4]

Death[แก้]

Vilks died in a car crash on 3 October 2021, in Markaryd, Sweden.[5] He had been to Stocksund to meet and eat dinner with his friend journalist Stina Lundberg Dabrowski.[6] He was on his way home travelling in an unmarked police car[7] with two police officers at the time their car crashed into a large truck and caught fire. The two police officers from the South Region bodyguard group also died.[8][9] Vilks was 75.

Bibliography[แก้]

  • (1987) Konst och konster (in Swedish; dissertation), Malmö: Wedgepress & Cheese, ISBN 91-85752-57-6.[10]
  • (1993) Att läsa Arx (in Swedish), Nora: Nya Doxa, ISBN 91-88248-43-7.[11]
  • (1993) Arx : en bok om det outsägliga (in Swedish), Nora: Nya Doxa, ISBN 91-88248-47-X.[12]
  • (1994) Nimis och Arx (in Swedish), Nora: Nya Doxa, ISBN 91-88248-50-X.[13]
  • (1995) Konstteori : kameler går på vatten (in Swedish), Nora: Nya Doxa, ISBN 91-88248-94-1.[14]
  • (1999) Det konstnärliga uppdraget? : en historia om konsthistoria, kontextkonst och det metafysiska överskottet (in Swedish), Nora: Nya Doxa, ISBN 91-578-0331-5.[15]
  • (2002) T.O.A. : [teori om allting] (in Swedish), Malmö: Galleri 21, ISBN 91-631-2330-4.[16]
  • (2003) Myndigheterna som konstnärligt material : den långa historien om Nimis, Arx, Omfalos och Ladonien (in Swedish), Nora: Nya Doxa, ISBN 91-578-0429-X (hardback).[17]
  • (2004) Spartips : 34 tips för konstnärer, kommuner, vissa obemedlade samt underbetalda (in Swedish), Nora: Nya Doxa, ISBN 91-578-0451-6.[18]
  • (2005) Hur man blir samtidskonstnär på tre dagar : handbok med teori (in Swedish; co-author: Martin Schibli), Nora: Nya Doxa, ISBN 91-578-0459-1.[19]
  • (2011) ART: den institutionella konstteorin, konstnärlig kvalitet, den internationella samtidskonsten. Nora: Nya Doxa, ISBN 978-91-578-0590-4[20]

See also[แก้]

Visual arts
Freedom of speech

References[แก้]

  1. "Lars Vilks: Muhammad cartoonist killed in traffic collision". 4 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 4 October 2021 – โดยทาง BBC News.
  2. Bicudo de Castro, Vicente; Kober, Ralph (15 April 2019). "The Royal Republic of Ladonia: A Micronation built of Driftwood, Concrete and Bytes" (PDF). Shima: The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures. doi:10.21463/shima.13.1.10. เก็บ (PDF) จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 20 April 2019. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 April 2019.
  3. Lars Vilks profile Archived 16 ธันวาคม 2010 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน, NovelArt.org. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  4. "ART : den institutionella konstteorin, konstnärlig kvalitet, en internationella samtidskonsten av Lars Vilks (Häftad)". Bokus.com. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  5. Associated Press (3 October 2021). "Lars Vilks, threatened Swedish artist, dies in traffic accident: Report". The Washington Times. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  6. Killgren, Sandra (4 October 2021). "Dabrowski träffade Vilks före olyckan – sörjer hans död". เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 4 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 4 October 2021 – โดยทาง SVT Nyheter.
  7. "Konstnären Lars Vilks död i svår trafikolycka". Dagens Nyheter. 3 October 2021. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  8. "Konstnären Lars Vilks och två poliser döda i trafikolycka" [Artist Lars Vilks and two police officers dead in traffic accident]. Expressen. 3 October 2021. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  9. "Threatened Swedish artist reportedly dead in road accident". AP News. 3 October 2021. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  10. "Konst & Konster | Lars Vilks | 120 SEK". www.bokborsen.se. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  11. "Att läsa Arx av Lars Vilks (Häftad)". Bokus.com. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  12. Orrenius, Niklas (20 September 2016). Skotten i Köpenhamn: Ett reportage om Lars Vilks, extremism och yttrandefrihetens gränser. Albert Bonniers Förlag. ISBN 9789100161675. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 4 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021 – โดยทาง Google Books.
  13. "Nimis och Arx – Råbocka Camping". rabockacamping.se. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 27 November 2020. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  14. "Konstteori – Kameler går på vatten – Lars Vilks – Bok | Akademibokhandeln". akademibokhandeln.se. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  15. Det konstnärliga uppdraget?. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021 – โดยทาง biblioteket.stockholm.se.
  16. "T.O.A. : [teori om alltin... | Vilks, Lars – Jonsson,... | från 120". bokborsen.se. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  17. "Myndigheterna som konstnärligt material – Den långa historien om Nimis, Arx av Lars Vilks (Kartonnage)". Bokus.com. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  18. "Spartips : 34 tips för konstnärer, kommuner, vissa obemedlade samt underbetalda av Lars Vilks". LitteraturMagazinet. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  19. "Hur man blir samtidskonstnär på tre dagar : handbok med teori – Martin Schibli, Lars Vilks – häftad (9789157804594) | Adlibris Bokhandel". adlibris.com. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 15 April 2015. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.
  20. "ART : den institutionella konstteorin, konstnärlig kvalitet, en internationella samtidskonsten – Lars Vilks – häftad (9789157805904) | Adlibris Bokhandel". adlibris.com. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 3 October 2021. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 October 2021.

External links[แก้]

แม่แบบ:Authority control (arts)

โออิจิ (ปรับปรุง)[แก้]

โออิจิ-โนะ-คาตะ
お市
โออิจิ
Oichinokata.jpg
ภาพของโออิจิ
เกิด1547
เสียชีวิต15 มิถุนายน ค.ศ. 1583 (ข้อผิดพลาดนิพจน์: "{" เป็นอักขระเครื่องหมายวรรคตอนที่ไม่รู้จัก ปี)
ปราสาทคิตาโนโชในยุทธการที่ชิซูงาตาเกะ
คู่สมรสอาไซ นางามาซะ
ชิบาตะ คัตสึอิเอะ
บุตรชาจะ
โอฮัตสึ
โอเอโยะ
มัมปูกูมารุ
บิดามารดาโอดะ โนบูฮิเดะ
สึจิดะ โกเซ็ง
ญาติMon-Oda.png ตระกูลโอดะ
Japanese Crest mitumori Kikkou ni Hanabishi.svg ตระกูลอาไซ
Ashikaga mon.svg ตระกูลโอวาริ-ชิบาตะ

โออิจิ (ญี่ปุ่น: お市โรมาจิOich; ค.ศ. 1547 – 14 มิถุนายน ค.ศ. 1583) เป็นบุคคลสำคัญทางประวัติศาสตร์หญิงในยุคเซ็งโงกุตอนปลาย[1] เธอเป็นที่รู้จักจากการเป็นแม่ของลูกสาวสามคนที่กลายเป็นบุคคลสำคัญในภายหลัง ได้แก่ – โยโดะ โดโนะ,[2] โอฮัตสึ[3] และโอเอโยะ[4] โออิจิเป็นน้องสาวของโอดะ โนบูนางะ และเป็นพี่/น้องสะใภ้ของโนฮิเมะ ลูกสาวของไซโต โดซัง เธอสืบเชื้อสายจากตระกูลไทระและฟูจิวาระ

ประวัติ[แก้]

โออิจิเป็นลูกสาวของโอดะ โนบูฮิดะ และน้องสาวของโนบูนางะ แม่ของเธอเป็นสนมไม่ทราบนามที่ให้กำเนิดพี่น้องของเธอหลายคน ชื่ออื่นของเธอได้แก่อิจิฮิเมะ (市姫), โอดานิโนะคาตะ (小谷の方) และฮิเดโกะ (秀子) She was prized as a beauty of her time and was cherished by her older brother. She was intelligent and speculated to be slightly taller than most women of the age. Nobunaga once stated, "If Oichi was a man, she would make a fine warrior."

Following Nobunaga's conquest of Mino in 1567, in an effort to cement an alliance between Nobunaga and rival warlord Azai Nagamasa, Nobunaga arranged for Oichi,[5] then twenty years old, to marry Nagamasa. Their marriage was through political means, ensuring an alliance between the Oda and the Azai clans. Nobunaga was very grateful for the marriage and paid for the ceremony entirely (traditionally, the expenses are meant to be shared). Oichi bore Nagamasa one son (Manjumaru) and three daughters – Yodo-dono, Ohatsu and Oeyo. The two clans prospered and worked well together until three years later. Seeing Nobunaga abuse the shogun's power, their relations grew sour and Nagamasa betrayed Nobunaga.

Statue of Oichi in Fukui.

In the summer of 1570, Nagamasa betrayed his alliance with Nobunaga and went to war with him on behalf of the Asakura family in the Battle of Anegawa. A story relates that Oichi sent her brother a sack of beans tied at both ends, ostensibly as a good-luck charm but in reality a warning that he was about to be attacked from both front and rear by the Asakura and Azai clans. According to the story, Nobunaga understood the message and retreated from his brother-in-law's assault in time.

The fighting continued for three years until the Asakura and other anti-Oda forces were destroyed or weakened. Oichi remained with her husband at Odani Castle throughout the conflict, even after Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a trusted vassal of Nobunaga at the time, began laying siege to the castle. In the siege of Odani, Nobunaga requested that his sister be returned to him before the final attack. Nagamasa agreed, sending out Oichi and her three daughters.[6] Nagamasa had no hope of winning, and chose to commit seppuku.

Oichi and her daughters remained in the Oda family's care for the next decade. After Nobunaga was assassinated in 1582, his sons and vassals broke into two major factions, led by two of Nobunaga's favored generals, Shibata Katsuie and Hideyoshi. Nobunaga's third son, Nobutaka, belonged to the former group, and arranged for his aunt Oichi to marry Katsuie in order to ensure his loyalty to the Oda clan. But in 1583, Katsuie was defeated by Hideyoshi in the Battle of Shizugatake, forcing him to retreat to his home at Kitanosho Castle.

As Hideyoshi's army lay siege to the castle, Katsuie implored Oichi to flee with her daughters and seek Hideyoshi's protection. Oichi refused, insisting on dying with her husband after their daughters were sent away. The daughters were taken care of by Hideyoshi with her oldest daughter Yodo-dono (also known as Chacha) eventually became one of Hideyoshi's concubines and mother of his heir.[5]:286,313

ลูกสาวของโออิจิ[แก้]

Oichi's three daughters each went on to become important historical figures in their own right. The eldest and the most famous, Chacha became a concubine to Hideyoshi, whose army had killed not only both her birth parents but also her stepfather. She became known as Yodo-dono or Yodogimi (from Yodo Castle, given to her by Hideyoshi), and she bore him his only two sons, including his heir Hideyori. Yodo-dono and Hideyori later died in the siege of Osaka, in 1615, the final battle of the warring-states era.

The second, Ohatsu, married Kyōgoku Takatsugu, a man from a noble family once served by the Azai clan. The Kyogoku clan sided with Ieyasu after Hideyoshi's death, giving her the means to serve as an intermediary between Ieyasu and Yodo-dono. She worked in vain to end their hostilities, and after Yodo-dono and Hideyori's death, managed to save Hideyori's daughter by putting her in a convent.

The youngest, Oeyo (also called Ogō), married Tokugawa Hidetada, Ieyasu's heir and the second Tokugawa Shōgun. They had many children, including the third Shōgun Iemitsu, and Kazuko, consort to Emperor Go-Mizunoo. Kazuko's daughter Okiko became Empress Meishō, thus posthumously making Oichi both a grandmother to a Shōgun and a great-grandmother to an Empress.

Personal information[แก้]

Cherished by her family and said to have been well loved by their retainers Shibata Katsuie and Maeda Toshiie were said to be amongst her admirers. Likewise, it is believed that Nagamasa highly valued her as his precious wife. Based on what is known of her, people generally accept that she was faithful and loving to both her husbands.

She is said to have never liked Toyotomi Hideyoshi, which is possibly one of the reasons why she declined to be sent away while with Katsuie. Ironically, it is assumed Hideyoshi cared for her since he tried to save her and her children's lives.

ครอบครัว[แก้]

ในวัฒนธรรมร่วมสมัย[แก้]

ภาพโออิจิ ในเกมส์ Samurai Warriors 2

She's a playable character in the Samurai Warriors series of games, armed with a kendama and later changed to Four Bladed Hoops chained to another, where her story is fleshed out. That same version is also in Pokémon Conquest (Pokémon + Nobunaga's Ambition in Japan), with her partner Pokémon being Jigglypuff and Wigglytuff.[7]

อ้างอิง[แก้]

  1. Ochinokata, Gifu prefecture website.
  2. Wilson, Richard L. (1985). Ogata Kenzan (1663-1743), p. 40.
  3. "The silk coloured portrait of wife of Takatsugu Kyogoku," Archived พฤษภาคม 6, 2011 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน Digital Cultural Properties of Wakasa Obama.
  4. "Atsuhime"-Autorin für NHKs 2011er Taiga-Drama gewählt (citing Tokyograph), Archived 2011-05-06 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน J-Dorama.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. p. 278. ISBN 0804705259.
  6. Yoshikawa, Eiji. (2000). Taiko, p. 421.
  7. "Oichi + Jigglypuff - Pokémon Conquest characters". Pokémon. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2012-06-17.

บรรณานุกรม[แก้]

แหล่งข้อมูลอื่น[แก้]

ชีวิตในการเป็นภรรยาและมารดา[แก้]

ด้วยการที่โนะบุนะงะมีชัยชนะเหนือแคว้นมิโนะในปีพ.ศ. 2110 จึงมีความพยายามที่จะสร้างสัมพันธไมตรีระหว่างโนะบุนะงะและอะซะอิ นะงะมะสะ โนะบุนะงะจึงส่งโออิจิซึ่งมีอายุได้ 20 ปีไปสมรสกับนะงะมะสะ เป็นการสมรสด้วยเหตุผลทางการเมืองของสองตระกูลคือโอดะและอะซะอิ โออิจิได้ให้กำเนิดบุตรกับนะงะมะสะได้แก่ มันจูมารุ (บุตรชาย),โยะโดะ โดะโนะ,โอฮัทสึและโอเอะโยะ

ในฤดูร้อน ปีพ.ศ. 2113 นะงะมะสะได้ล้มเลิกพันธมิตรกับโอดะและร่วมมือกับตระกูลอะซะกุระ มีเรื่องเล่าว่าโออิจิได้ส่งกระสอบถั่วไปให้พี่ชายซึ่งผูกกับไม้ทั้ง 2 ข้างเป็นรหัสลับในการเตือนให้พี่ชายระวังตัวจากการโจมตีของทั้ง 2 ทัพคืออะซะอิและอะซะกุระ โนะบุนะงะเข้าใจในความหมายและสั่งให้ทัพถอยหนีและจู่โจมในเวลาต่อมา

การต่อสู้ดำเนินไปเรื่อยๆเป็นเวลา 3 ปีจนกระทั่งกองทัพอะซะกุระและทัพของผู้ต่อต้านโอดะถูกปราบราบคาบ โออิจิอาศัยอยู่กับนะงะมะสะในปราสาทโอตานิตลอดช่วงสงคราม โทะโยะโตะมิ ฮิเดะโยะชิขุนนางที่โนะบุนะงะไว้ใจได้วางกำลังล้อมปราสาทแน่นหนา ระหว่างที่ปราสาทถูกล้อมโนะบุนะงะได้ส่งคำขอไปยังนะงะมะสะให้ส่งตัวโออิจิคืนมาก่อนจะโจมตีครั้งสุดท้าย นะงะมะสะเห็นด้วยจึงส่งโออิจิพร้อมด้วยธิดา 3 คนสู่กองทัพโอดะต่อมานะงะมะสะได้ถูกโนะบุนะงะสังหาร

โออิจิและธิดาของเธอได้อาศัยอยู่ในตระกูลโอดะเป็นเวลา 10 ปี จนกระทั่งโนะบุนะงะถูกลอบสังหารในปีพ.ศ. 2125 บุตรและขุนนางของเขาแตกแยกเป็น 2 ฝ่าย ได้แก่ ฝ่ายของชิบะตะ คัตสึอิเอะและฝ่ายของโทะโยะโตะมิ ฮิเดะโยะชิ โอดะ โนะบุทะกะบุตรชายคนที่ 3 ของโนะบุนะงะได้จัดเตรียมให้โออิจิซึ่งเป็นน้าสมรสกับคัตสึอิเอะเพื่อรับรองความปลอดภัยในตำแหน่งภายในตระกูลโอดะ แต่ในปีพ.ศ. 2125 ทัพของคัตสึอิเอะถูกปราบโดยทัพของฮิเดะโยะชิในการต่อสู้ที่ชิซุกะทะเกะ คัตสึอิเอะได้ถอยทัพเข้าปราสาทคิตะโนะโช ทัพฮิเดะโยะชิจึงล้อมปราสาท คัตสึอิเอะได้ร้องขอให้โออิจิหนีไปพร้อมธิดาทั้ง 3เพื่อให้ปลอดภัยจากฮิเดะโยะชิ แต่นางปฏิเสธจึงส่งธิดาทั้ง 3 หนีไป ส่วนนางจะยอมตายในปราสาท ในที่สุดคัตสึอิเอะและโออิจิได้เสียชีวิตภายในปราสาทที่มีเพลิงใหม้โหมกระหน่ำ

ธิดาของโออิจิ[แก้]

โยโด-โดโนะ

ธิดาของโออิจิทุกคนล้วนเป็นบุคคลที่มีความสำคัญในประวัติศาสตร์ที่เป็นที่รู้จักกันมากที่สุดคือ ธิดาคนโต โยะโดะ โดะโนะ นางได้เป็นสนมในฮิเดะโยะชิ ผู้ซึ่งเป็นคนสังหารมารดาของนางและบิดาเลี้ยง นางเป็นที่รู้จักในชื่อโยโดะ-โดโนะหรือโยโดะกิมิ นางมีบุตรสองคนกับฮิเดะโยะชิซึ่งเป็นรัชทายาทคือ โทะโยะโตะมิ ฮิเดะโยะริ หลังจากนั้นโยโดะ-โดโนะและฮิเดะโยะริได้เสียชีวิตในการปิดล้อมที่โอซากา

ธิดาคนที่ 2 คือ โอฮัทสึได้สมรสกับเคียวโกะคุ ทะกะซึกุ คนในตระกูลขุนนางตระกูลหนึ่งที่เคยรับใช้ตระกูลอะซะอิ ตระกูลเคียวโกะคุได้สนับสนุนโทะกุงะวะ อิเอยาสุหลังจากการเสียชีวิตของฮิเดะโยะชิ ซึ่งถือว่า เป็นตัวกลางระหว่างฝ่ายอิเอะยะสึและโยโดะ-โดโนะผู้เป็นพี่สาว ความพยายามของโอฮัทสึสูญเปล่าที่พยายามยุติความขัดแย้งระหว่างโยโดะ-โดโนะและอิเอะยะสึ และหลังจากฮิเดะโยะริและโยโดะ-โดโนะเสียชีวิตในการปิดล้อมโอซากา นางได้รับเลี้ยงธิดาของฮิเดะโยะริที่ต้องกำพร้า

ธิดาคนสุดท้องคือ โอเอะโยะได้สมรสกับโทะกุงะวะ ฮิเดะทะดะ รัชทายาทของอิเอะยะสึและเป็นโชกุนลำดับที่ 2 ของเอโดะ ทั้งคู่มีบตรธิดามากมายรวมทั้งโชกุนคนที่ 3 คือโทะกุงะวะ อิเอะมิสึและโทะกุงะวะ มาซาโกะผู้เป็นพระมเหสีในสมเด็จพระจักรพรรดิโก-มิซุโนะ พระธิดาของมาซาโกะได้เป็นสมเด็จพระจักรพรรดินีเมอิโชได้สถาปนาโออิจิผู้เป็นสมเด็จพระปัยยิกาฝ่ายพระมารดา (ยายทวด) ขึ้นดำรงพระอิศริยยศเป็นสมเด็จพระจักรพรรดินีหลังจากโออิจิเสียชีวิตนานแล้ว

อ้างอิง[แก้]

โอเอโยะ (ปรับปรุง)[แก้]

Ōmidaidokoro
於江与
Oeyo
Oeyo.jpg
Portrait of Oeyo
เกิดOgo (小督)
1573
เสียชีวิต26 ตุลาคม ค.ศ. 1626 (ข้อผิดพลาดนิพจน์: "{" เป็นอักขระเครื่องหมายวรรคตอนที่ไม่รู้จัก ปี)
Edo Castle, Musashi, Japan
คู่สมรสSaji Kazunari
Toyotomi Hidekatsu
Tokugawa Hidetada
บิดามารดาAzai Nagamasa
Oichi
ครอบครัวJapanese Crest mitumori Kikkou ni Hanabishi.svg Azai clan
Goshichi no kiri inverted.svg Toyotomi clan
Tokugawa family crest.svg Tokugawa clan
เกียรติยศJunior First Rank (従一位, 1626)

ญี่ปุ่น: Oeyoโรมาจิ於江与, ญี่ปุ่น: โรมาจิ, ญี่ปุ่น: Ogōโรมาจิ小督 or ญี่ปุ่น: Satokoโรมาจิ達子 : 1573 – September 15, 1626) was a prominently-placed female figure in the Azuchi–Momoyama period and early Edo period. She was daughter of Oichi and the sister of Yodo-dono and Ohatsu. When she rose to higher political status during the Tokugawa shogunate, she took the title of "Ōmidaidokoro". Following the fall of the Council of Five Elders, Oeyo and her sisters were key figures in maintaining a diplomatic relationship between the two most powerful clans of their time, Toyotomi and Tokugawa. Due to her great contributions to politics at the beginning of the Edo period she was posthumously inducted into the Junior First Rank of the Imperial Court, the second highest honor that could be conferred by the Emperor of Japan.

Oeyo married three times, first to Saji Kazunari, her cousin, then to Toyotomi Hideyoshi's nephew, Toyotomi Hidekatsu. She had a daughter with Hidekatsu named Toyotomi Sadako later married Kujō Yukiie. Her third and last husband Tokugawa Hidetada became the second Tokugawa shōgun. She was also the mother of his successor Iemitsu, the third shōgun. She had Senhime, Tamahime, Katsuhime, Hatsuhime, Takechiyo (Iemitsu), and Tadanaga. Hatsuhime was adopted by Oeyo's sister Ohatsu, who is the wife of Kyōgoku Takatsugu.

Surviving record books from merchants of luxury goods provide insight into patterns of patronage and taste amongst the privileged class of women like Oeyo and her sisters.[1]

Genealogy[แก้]

Oeyo, also known as Ogō, was the third and youngest daughter of the Sengoku-period daimyō Azai Nagamasa. Her mother, Oichi was the younger sister of Oda Nobunaga.[2] Toyotomi Hideyoshi became the adoptive father and protector of Oeyo in the period before her marriage.[3]

Oeyo's oldest sister, styled Yodo-dono, Cha-Cha in birth name, was a prominent concubine of Hideyoshi who gave birth to his heir, Toyotomi Hideyori.[2]

Oeyo's middle sister, Ohatsu was the wife of Kyōgoku Takatsugu and the mother of Kyōgoku Tadataka.[2]

Family[แก้]

by Hidekatsu[แก้]

by Hidetada[แก้]

Burial[แก้]

After Hidetada resigned the government to his eldest son in 1623, Oeyo took a Buddhist name, ญี่ปุ่น: Sūgen'inโรมาจิ崇源院 or Sogenin. Her mausoleum can be found at Zōjō-ji in the Shiba neighborhood of Tokyo.[4]

Mausoleum of Sugenin taken in Meiji Era

Honours[แก้]

Taiga drama[แก้]

NHK's 2011 Taiga drama, Gō: Himetachi no Sengoku, is based on the life of Oeyo who is played by the actress Juri Ueno.[5][6]

Notes[แก้]

บรรณานุกรม[แก้]

Ubaydah ibn al-Harith[แก้]

Ubaydah ibn al-Harith
เกิดป. 562
Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia
เสียชีวิต13 มีนาคม ค.ศ. 624 (ข้อผิดพลาดนิพจน์: "{" เป็นอักขระเครื่องหมายวรรคตอนที่ไม่รู้จัก ปี)
Badr, Hejaz, Arabia
สาเหตุเสียชีวิต
killed by the wounds received in the Battle of Badr
สัญชาติQuraysh
มีชื่อเสียงจากBeing a Companion of Muhammad
คู่สมรสZaynab bint Khuzayma

Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (อาหรับ: عبيدة بن الحارث‎) (c.562-624) was a relative[1] and companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is known for commanding the expedition in which Islam’s first arrow was shot[1][2] and for being the first Muslim to be felled in battle.[3] Muslims regard Ubaydah as a shahid,[4] a word that cannot easily be translated into English but refers to a Muslim who dies in the course of his Islamic duties.

Family[แก้]

Ubaydah was the son of al-Harith ibn Muttalib ibn Abdmanaf ibn Qusayy,[5]:116[6]:36 hence a second cousin of Muhammad’s father Abdullah and of his uncle Abu Talib. His mother, Sukhayla bint Khuza'i ibn Huwayrith ibn al-Harith ibn Khaythama ibn al-Harith ibn Malik ibn Jusham ibn Thaqif, was from the Thaqif tribe. He had two full brothers, al-Tufayl and al-Husayn, who were more than twenty years younger than himself.

By various concubines, he was the father of nine children: Muawiya, Awn, Munqidh, al-Harith, Ibrahim, Rabta, Khadija, Suhaykhla and Safiya.[6]:36 He had no children by his only known legal wife, Zaynab bint Khuzayma.

Ubaydah's appearance is described as "medium, swarthy, with a handsome face."[6]:36

Conversion to Islam[แก้]

Ubaydah became a Muslim before Muhammad entered the house of al-Arqam in 614.[6]:36 His name is twelfth on Ibn Ishaq's list of people who accepted Islam at the invitation of Abu Bakr.[5]:116

In 622 Ubaydah and his brothers, together with their young cousin Mistah ibn Uthatha, joined the general emigration to Medina.[6]:36 They boarded with Abdullah ibn Salama in Quba[5]:218 until Muhammad allotted them some land in Medina. Muhammad gave Ubaydah two brothers in Islam: Abu Bakr's freedman Bilal ibn Rabah and an ansar named Umayr ibn Al-Humam.[6]:36-37

Military expeditions[แก้]

แม่แบบ:Campaignbox Campaigns of Muhammad

ดูบทความหลักที่: List of expeditions of Muhammad
ดูบทความหลักที่: Expedition of Ubaydah ibn al-Harith

Some say that Ubaydah was the first to whom Muhammad gave a banner on a military expedition; others say Hamza was the first.[6]:37

In April 623 Muhammad sent Ubaydah with a party of sixty armed Muhajirun to the valley of Rabigh. They expected to intercept a Quraysh caravan that was returning from Syria under the protection of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and 200 armed riders.[5]:218[6]:37[7][8][9] The Muslim party travelled as far as the wells at Thanyat al-Murra,[5]:281[8] where Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas shot an arrow at the Quraysh, said to be the first arrow shot in Islam.[5]:281[10][7] Despite this surprise attack, "they did not unsheathe a sword or approach one another," and the Muslims returned empty-handed.[6]:37[7][8]

Death[แก้]

Ubaydah was killed in the battle of Badr in 624 in triple combat against Utbah ibn Rabi'ah, who cut off his leg. Although he was the first Muslim to be struck down at Badr, he survived his injury for several hours, so the first Muslims who actually died in the battle were Umar’s freedman Mihja’ and Haritha ibn Suraqa.[5]:300 It is alleged that Ubaydah composed poetry while he was dying:

You may cut off my leg, yet I am a Muslim.
I hope in exchange for a life near to Allah,
with Houris fashioned like the most beautiful statues,
with the highest heaven for those who mount there...[5]:349

He died at al-Safra, a day's march from Badr, and was buried there.[6]:37

Following his death, his widow Zaynab became Muhammad's fifth wife.[11]

External links[แก้]

References[แก้]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. p. 128.
  2. Muir, Sir William (1877). The Life of Mohammed. London.
  3. Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. p. 136.
  4. Waqidi, Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, pp. 36, 73. Oxford: Routledge.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Muhammad ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 Muhammad ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir Volume 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Haykal, M. H. (1935). Translated by al-Faruqi, I. R. A. (1976). The Life of Muhammad, p. 256. Chicago: North American Trust Publications.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Mubarakpuri, S. R. (1979). Ar-Raheeq Al-Maktum (The Sealed Nectar), p. 92. Riyadh: Darussalem Publishers.
  9. Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust. ISBN 9789957051648.Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  10. แม่แบบ:Hadith-usc
  11. Ibn Hisham note 918.

อักษรไทเวียด (ปรับปรุง)[แก้]

สำหรับthe Unicode block ดู Tai Viet (Unicode block)
Tai Viet
[[ไฟล์:Tai Viet rendering.svg|]]
ชนิดAbugida
ภาษาพูดTai Dam, Tai Daeng, Tai Dón, Thai Song and Tày Tac
ช่วงยุค16th century-present[1]
ระบบแม่
ช่วงยูนิโคดU+AA80–U+AADF
ISO 15924Tavt

แม่แบบ:Brahmic The Tai Viet script (Tai Dam: Xư Tay (Tai Script), Vietnamese: Chữ Thái Việt) is a Brahmic script used by the Tai Dam people and various other Tai peoples in Vietnam.[2]

History[แก้]

According to Thai authors, the writing system is probably derived from the old Thai writing of the kingdom of Sukhotai.[3] It has been suggested that the Fakkham script is the source of the Tai Don, Tai Dam and Tai Daeng writing systems found in eastern Yunnan, northern Laos, and Vietnam.[4]

Differences in phonology of the various local Tai languages, the isolation of communities and the fact that the written language has traditionally been passed down from father to son have led to many local variants. In an attempt to reverse this development and establish a standardized system, Vietnam's various Tai people in the former Northwestern Autonomous Region were approached with a proposal that they should agree on a common standard. Together with Vietnamese researchers, a first proposal called Thống Nhất (or Unified Alphabet) was developed, which was published in 1961 and revised in 1966.[5][6] A unified and standardized version of the script was developed at a UNESCO-sponsored workshop in 2006, named "chữ Thái Việt Nam" (or Vietnamese Tai script). This standardized version was then approved to be included in Unicode.[1]

From May 2008, the improved Thai script was put into official use.[โปรดขยายความ]

Description[แก้]

A text in Tai Viet script

The script consists of 31 consonants and 14 vowels.[3] Unlike most other abugidas or brahmic scripts, the consonants do not have an inherent vowel, and every vowel must be specified with a vowel marker. Vowels are marked with diacritic vowel markers that can appear above, below or to the left and/or right of the consonant.[1] Some vowels carry an inherent final consonant, such as /-aj/, /-am/, /-an/ and /-əw/.[7]

The script uses Latin script punctuation, and also includes five special characters, one to indicate a person, one for the number "one", one to repeat the previous word, one to mark the beginning of a text and one to mark the end of a text.[7]

Traditionally, the script did not use any spacing between words as they were written in a continuous flow, but spacing has become common since the 1980s.[7]

Consonants[แก้]

Initial consonant letters have both high and low forms, which are used to indicate tones. The high consonants are used for the syllable final letters -w, -y, -m, -n and -ng. The low consonant letter -k is used for final /k/- and /ʔ/-sounds, while low consonant letters -b and -d are used for final /p/ and /t/.[8][7]

Character Name Sound[9]
Low High
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet ko /k/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet kho /kʰ/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet khho /x/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet go /g/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet ngo /ŋ/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet co /tɕ/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet cho /tɕʰ/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet so /s/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet nyo /ɲ/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet do /d/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet to /t/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet tho /tʰ/
Character Name Sound[9]
Low High
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet no /n/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet bo /b/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet po /p/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet pho /pʰ/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet fo /f/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet mo /m/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet yo /j/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet ro /r/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet lo /l/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet vo /v/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet ho /h/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet o /ʔ/
Tai Viet script consonants

Vowels[แก้]

Tai Viet script vowels

The consonant character's position is marked with a circle: ◌.

Character Name Sound[5][9]
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet mai kang /a/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet aa /aː/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet i /i/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet ue /ɨ/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet u /u/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet ee /ɛ/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet o /o/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet mai khit /ɔ/*
Character Name Sound[5][9]
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet ia /iə̯/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet uea /ɨə̯/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet ua /uə̯/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet aue /əw/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet ay /aj/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet an /an/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet am /am/

Some additional vowels are written with a combination of two vowel characters. The following four combinations are used for Tai Dam:

Character Sound[5][9]
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet /e/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet /ə/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet /aw/
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet /ap/

Tones[แก้]

Traditionally the script used no tone marks and only partially indicated tones with the high/low consonant differentiation. The reader had to guess the tone and thus meaning of a word from context. In the 1970s two tone marks were developed, called mai nueng and mai song.[1] Tone 1 is marked with only a low consonant. Tone 4 is marked with only a high consonant. Tone 2 is marked with the first tone mark and a low consonant form. Tone 5 is marked with the first tone mark and a high consonant form. Tone 3 is marked with the second tone mark and a low consonant form. Tone 6 is marked with the second tone mark and a high consonant form.[8][7]

Character Name Low tone High tone
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet 1 4
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet mai ek 2 5
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet mai tho 3 6
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet mai nueng 2 5
แม่แบบ:Script/Tai Viet mai song 3 6

Unicode[แก้]

ดูบทความหลักที่: Tai Viet (Unicode block)

Proposals to encode Tai Viet script in Unicode go back to 2006.[10] A Unicode subcommittee reviewed a February 6, 2007 proposal submitted by James Brase of SIL International for what was then called Tay Viet script.[11] At the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 meeting on April 24, 2007, a revised proposal[7] for the script, now known as Tai Viet, was accepted "as is", with support[12] from TCVN, the Vietnam Quality & Standards Centre.

Tai Viet was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

The Unicode block for Tai Viet is U+AA80–U+AADF:

Tai Viet[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+AA8x
U+AA9x
U+AAAx
U+AABx ꪿
U+AACx
U+AADx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Further reading[แก้]

References[แก้]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Tai Viet". สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 July 2020.
  2. Bảng chữ cái tiếng Thái (Việt Nam), các quy tắc cơ bản. Lịch sử văn hóa Thái, 26/06/2018. In vietnamese.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Bankston, Carl L. "The Tai Dam: Refugees from Vietnam and Laos". Passage: A Journal of Refugee Education. 3 (Winter 1987): 30–31.
  4. Hartmann, John F. (1986). "THE SPREAD OF SOUTH INDIC SCRIPTS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Brase, Jim (27 January 2006). "Towards a Unicode Proposal for the Unified Tai Script". สืบค้นเมื่อ 28 April 2015.
  6. Trung Viet, Ngo; Brase, Jim. "Unified Tai Script for Unicode". สืบค้นเมื่อ 28 April 2015.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Brase, Jim (2007-02-20). "N3220: Proposal to encode the Tai Viet script in the UCS" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2015-05-31.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Tai Dam alphabet". สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 July 2020.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Brase, Jim (5 May 2008). "Writing Tai Don". สืบค้นเมื่อ 28 April 2015.
  10. Ngô, Việt Trung; Brase, Jim (2006-01-30). "L2/06-041: Unified Tai Script for Unicode" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2015-05-31.
  11. Brase, Jim (6 February 2007). "L2/07-039R: Tay Viet Script for Unicode" (PDF). สืบค้นเมื่อ 9 August 2014.
  12. "N3221: Support for the proposal (N3220) to encode the Tai Viet script" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2. 2007-03-21. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2017-03-24.

External links[แก้]

แม่แบบ:Writing systems แม่แบบ:List of writing systems

ภาษาฮินดูสตานี[แก้]

Hindustani
Hindi–Urdu
  • हिंदुस्तानी[1]
  • ہندوستانی
Hindustani.svg
The word Hindustani in the Devanagari[a] and Perso-Arabic (Nastaliq) scripts
ออกเสียงสัทอักษรสากล: [ɦɪnd̪ʊst̪aːniː]
ประเทศที่มีการพูดNorth India, Deccan, Pakistan
ภูมิภาคSouth Asia
จำนวนผู้พูดc. 250 million  (2011 & 2017 censuses)[2]
L2 speakers: ~500 million (1999–2016)[2]
ตระกูลภาษา
รูปแบบก่อนหน้า
รูปแบบมาตรฐาน
ภาษาถิ่น
ระบบการเขียน
สถานภาพทางการ
ภาษาทางการ
ผู้วางระเบียบ
รหัสภาษา
ISO 639-1hi
ISO 639-2hin
ISO 639-3อย่างใดอย่างหนึ่ง:
hin — Hindi
urd — Urdu
Linguasphere59-AAF-qa to -qf
Hindustani map.png
Areas (red) where Hindustani (Delhlavi or Kauravi) is the native language

Hindustani (/ˌhɪndʊˈstɑːni/; Devanagari: हिंदुस्तानी,[1][b] Hindustānī, / Perso-Arabic:[a] ہندوستانی‎, Hindūstānī, แปลว่า of Hindustan)[9][3][4] is the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan;[10][11] in linguistics and some other contexts, it is also known as Hindi–Urdu,[12][13][14] (Devanagari: हिंदी-उर्दू,[15] Perso-Arabic: ہندی-اردو‎).[9]

Ancestors of the language were known as: Hindui, Hindavi, Zabān-e Hind (แม่แบบ:Trans), Zabān-e Hindustan (แม่แบบ:Trans), Hindustan ki boli (แม่แบบ:Trans), Rekhta, and Hindi.[10][16] Its regional dialects became known as Zabān-e Dakhani in southern India, Zabān-e Gujari (แม่แบบ:Trans) in Gujarat, and as Zabān-e Dehlavi or Urdu around Delhi. It is an Indo-Aryan language, deriving its base primarily from the Western Hindi dialect of Delhi, also known as Khariboli.[17] Hindustani is a pluricentric language, best characterised as a dialect continuum with two standardised registers: Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu.[18][19] Depending on the social context and geographical area, the language leans towards either side.[20]

The concept of a Hindustani language as a "unifying language" or "fusion language" was endorsed by Mahatma Gandhi.[21] The conversion from Hindi to Urdu (or vice versa) is generally achieved just by transliteration between the two scripts, instead of translation which is generally only required for religious and literary texts.[22]

Some scholars trace the language's first written poetry, in the form of Old Hindi, to as early as 769 AD.[23] However this view is not generally accepted.[24][25][26] During the period of Delhi Sultanate, which covered most of today's India, eastern Pakistan, southern Nepal and Bangladesh[27] and which resulted in the contact of Hindu and Muslim cultures, the Prakrit base of Old Hindi became enriched with loanwords from Persian, evolving into the present form of Hindustani.[28][29][30][31][32][33] The Hindustani vernacular became an expression of Indian national unity during the Indian Independence movement,[34][35] and continues to be spoken as the common language of the people of the northern Indian subcontinent,[36] which is reflected in the Hindustani vocabulary of Bollywood films and songs.[37][38]

The language's core vocabulary is derived from Prakrit (a descendant of Sanskrit),[19][23][39][40] with substantial loanwords from Persian and Arabic (via Persian).[41][42][23][43] The number of speakers can only be estimated. Ethnologue reports that, as of 2020, Hindi and Urdu together constitute the 3rd-most-spoken language in the world after English and Mandarin, with 810 million native and second-language speakers,[44] though this includes millions who self-reported their language as 'Hindi' on the Indian census but speak a number of other Hindi languages than Hindustani.[45] The total number of Hindi–Urdu speakers was reported to be over 300 million in 1995, making Hindustani the third- or fourth-most spoken language in the world.[46][23]

Vocabulary[แก้]

ดูเพิ่มเติมที่: Hindustani etymology และ Hindustani vocabulary

Hindi-Urdu's core vocabulary has an Indic base, being derived from Prakrit, which in turn derives from Sanskrit,[23][19][39][40] as well as a substantial amount of loanwords from Persian and Arabic (via Persian).[47][41] Hindustani contains around 5,500 words of Persian and Arabic origin.[48]

Writing system[แก้]

ดูบทความหลักที่: Hindustani orthography, Devanagari Braille และ Urdu Braille

[[File:Surahi in samrup rachna calligraphy.jpg|thumb|right|"Surahi" in Samrup Rachna calligraphy]] Historically, Hindustani was written in the Kaithi, Devanagari, and Urdu alphabets.[49] Kaithi and Devanagari are two of the Brahmic scripts native to India, whereas the Urdu alphabet is a derivation of the Perso-Arabic script written in Nastaʿlīq, which is the preferred calligraphic style for Urdu.

Today, Hindustani continues to be written in the Urdu alphabet in Pakistan. In India, the Hindi register is officially written in Devanagari, and Urdu in the Urdu alphabet, to the extent that these standards are partly defined by their script.

However, in popular publications in India, Urdu is also written in Devanagari, with slight variations to establish a Devanagari Urdu alphabet alongside the Devanagari Hindi alphabet.

Devanagari
ə ɪ ʊ ɛː ɔː
क़ ख़ ग़
k q x ɡ ɣ ɡʱ ŋ
ज़ झ़
t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ z d͡ʒʱ ʒ ɲ[50]
ड़ ढ़
ʈ ʈʰ ɖ ɽ ɖʱ ɽʱ ɳ
t̪ʰ d̪ʱ n
फ़
p f b m
j ɾ l ʋ ʃ ʂ s ɦ
Urdu alphabet
Letter Name of letter Transliteration IPA
ا alif a, ā, i, or u แม่แบบ:IPAslink, แม่แบบ:IPAslink, แม่แบบ:IPAslink, or แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ب be b แม่แบบ:IPAslink
پ pe p แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ت te t แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ٹ ṭe แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ث se s แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ج jīm j แม่แบบ:IPAslink
چ che c แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ح baṛī he /h ~ ɦ/
خ khe k͟h แม่แบบ:IPAslink
د dāl d แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ڈ ḍāl แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ذ zāl z แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ر re r /r ~ ɾ/
ڑ ṛe แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ز ze z แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ژ zhe ž แม่แบบ:IPAslink
س sīn s แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ش shīn sh แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ص su'ād แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ض zu'ād ż แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ط to'e แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ظ zo'e แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ع ‘ain
غ ghain ġ แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ف fe f แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ق qāf q แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ک kāf k แม่แบบ:IPAslink
گ gāf g แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ل lām l แม่แบบ:IPAslink
م mīm m แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ن nūn n แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ں nūn ghunna ṁ or m̐ แม่แบบ:IPAslink
و wā'o w, v, ō, or ū แม่แบบ:IPAslink, แม่แบบ:IPAslink, แม่แบบ:IPAslink or แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ہ choṭī he h /h ~ ɦ/
ھ do chashmī he h แม่แบบ:IPAslink or แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ء hamza ' แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ی ye y or ī แม่แบบ:IPAslink or แม่แบบ:IPAslink
ے baṛī ye ai or ē แม่แบบ:IPAslink, or แม่แบบ:IPAslink

Because of anglicisation in South Asia and the international use of the Latin script, Hindustani is occasionally written in the Latin script. This adaptation is called Roman Urdu or Romanised Hindi, depending upon the register used. Since Urdu and Hindi are mutually intelligible when spoken, Romanised Hindi and Roman Urdu (unlike Devanagari Hindi and Urdu in the Urdu alphabet) are mostly mutually intelligible as well.

Sample text[แก้]

Colloquial Hindustani[แก้]

An example of colloquial Hindustani:[23]

  • Devanagari: यह कितने का है?
  • Urdu: یہ کتنے کا ہے؟
  • Romanisation: Yah kitnē kā hai?
  • English: How much is it?

The following is a sample text, Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the two official registers of Hindustani, Hindi and Urdu. Because this is a formal legal text, differences in vocabulary are most pronounced.

Literary Hindi[แก้]

अनुच्छेद १ — सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए।

Urdu transliteration
انُچھید ١ : سبھی منُشیوں کو گورو اور ادھکاروں کے وِشئے میں جنمجات سوَتنتْرتا پراپت ہیں۔ اُنہیں بدھی اور انتراتما کی دین پراپت ہے اور پرسپر اُنہیں بھائی چارے کے بھاؤ سے برتاؤ کرنا چاہئے۔
Transliteration (ISO 15919)
Anucchēd 1: Sabhī manuṣyō̃ kō gaurav aur adhikārō̃ kē viṣay mē̃ janmajāt svatantratā aur samāntā prāpt haĩ. Unhē̃ buddhi aur antarātmā kī dēn prāpt hai aur paraspar unhē̃ bhāīcārē kē bhāv sē bartāv karnā cāhiē.
Transcription (IPA)
səbʰiː mənʊʂjõː koː ɡɔːɾəʋ ɔːɾ əd̪ʰɪkɑːɾõː keː ʋɪʂəj mẽː dʒənmədʒɑːt̪ sʋət̪ənt̪ɾət̪ɑː ɔːɾ səmɑːnt̪ɑː pɾɑːpt̪ ɦɛ̃ː ‖ ʊnʰẽː bʊd̪ːʰɪ ɔːɾ ənt̪əɾɑːt̪mɑː kiː d̪eːn pɾɑːpt̪ ɦɛː ɔːɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʰẽː bʰɑːiːtʃɑːɾeː keː bʰɑːʋ seː bəɾtɑːʋ kəɾnɑː tʃɑːɦɪeː ‖]
Gloss (word-to-word)
Article 1—All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in from-birth freedom acquired is. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should.
Translation (grammatical)
Article 1—All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Literary Urdu[แก้]

:دفعہ ١: تمام اِنسان آزاد اور حُقوق و عِزت کے اعتبار سے برابر پَیدا ہُوئے ہَیں۔ انہیں ضمِیر اور عقل ودِیعت ہوئی ہَیں۔ اِس لئے انہیں ایک دُوسرے کے ساتھ بھائی چارے کا سُلُوک کرنا چاہئے۔

Devanagari transliteration
दफ़ा १ — तमाम इनसान आज़ाद और हुक़ूक़ ओ इज़्ज़त के ऐतबार से बराबर पैदा हुए हैं। उन्हें ज़मीर और अक़्ल वदीयत हुई हैं। इसलिए उन्हें एक दूसरे के साथ भाई चारे का सुलूक करना चाहीए।
Transliteration (ISO 15919)
Dafʻah 1: Tamām insān āzād aur ḥuqūq ō ʻizzat kē iʻtibār sē barābar paidā hu’ē haĩ. Unhē̃ żamīr aur ʻaql wadīʻat hu’ī haĩ. Isli’ē unhē̃ ēk dūsrē kē sāth bhā’ī cārē kā sulūk karnā cāhi’ē.
Transcription (IPA)
dəfaː eːk təmaːm ɪnsaːn aːzaːd ɔːɾ hʊquːq oː izːət keː ɛːtəbaːɾ seː bəɾaːbəɾ pɛːdaː hʊeː hɛ̃ː ʊnʱẽː zəmiːɾ ɔːɾ əql ʋədiːət hʊiː hɛ̃ː ɪs lɪeː ʊnʱẽː eːk duːsɾeː keː saːtʰ bʱaːiː tʃaːɾeː kaː sʊluːk kəɾnaː tʃaːhɪeː
Gloss (word-to-word)
Article 1: All humans free[,] and rights and dignity's consideration from equal born are. To them conscience and intellect endowed is. Therefore, they one another's with brotherhood's treatment do must.
Translation (grammatical)
Article 1—All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Hindustani and Bollywood[แก้]

The predominant Indian film industry Bollywood, located in Mumbai, Maharashtra uses Modern Standard Hindi, colloquial Hindustani, Bombay Hindi, Urdu,[51] Awadhi, Rajasthani, Bhojpuri, and Braj Bhasha, along with Punjabi and with the liberal use of English or Hinglish in scripts and soundtrack lyrics.

Film titles are often screened in three scripts: Latin, Devanagari and occasionally Perso-Arabic. The use of Urdu or Hindi in films depends on the film's context: historical films set in the Delhi Sultanate or Mughal Empire are almost entirely in Urdu, whereas films based on Hindu mythology or ancient India make heavy use of Hindi with Sanskrit vocabulary.

See also[แก้]

India
Pakistan
Languages

Notes[แก้]

  1. The image shows pre-modern spelling (हिन्दुस्तानी), but actual primary spelling is हिंदुस्तानी
  2. Also written as हिन्दुस्तानी

^a. Nastaliq fonts: This will only display in a Nastaliq font if you will have one installed, otherwise it may display in a modern Arabic font in a style more common for writing Arabic and most other non-Urdu languages such as Naskh. If this پاکستان‬ and this پاکستان‎ looks like this پاکستان‎ then you are not seeing it in Nastaliq.

References[แก้]

  1. 1.0 1.1
    • McGregor, R. S. (editor) (1993), "हिंदुस्तानी", The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, p. 1071, 2. hindustani [P. hindustani] f Hindustani (a mixed Hindi dialect of the Delhi region which came to be used as a lingua franca widely throughout India and what is now PakistanCS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    • "हिंदुस्तानी", बृहत हिंदी कोश खंड 2 (Large Hindi Dictionary, Volume 2), केन्द्रीय हिंदी निदेशालय, भारत सरकार (Central Hindi Directorate, Government of India), p. 1458, สืบค้นเมื่อ October 17, 2021
    • Das, Shyamasundar (1975), Hindi Shabda Sagar (Hindi dictionary) in 11 volumes, revised edition, Kashi (Varanasi): Nagari Pracharini Sabha, p. 5505, हिंदुस्तानी hindustānī३ संज्ञा स्त्री॰ १. हिंदुस्तान की भाषा । २. बोलचाल या व्यवहार की वह हिंदी जिसमें न तो बहुत अरबी फारसी के शब्द हों न संस्कृत के । उ॰—साहिब लोगों ने इस देश की भाषा का एक नया नाम हिंदुस्तानी रखा । Translation: Hindustani hindustānī3 noun feminine 1. The language of Hindustan. 2. That version of Hindi employed for common speech or business in which neither many Arabic or Persian words nor Sanskrit words are present. Context: The British gave the new name Hindustani to the language of this country.
    • Chaturvedi, Mahendra (1970), "हिंदुस्तानी", A Practical Hindi-English Dictionary, Delhi: National Publishing House, hindustānī hīndusta:nī: a theoretically existent style of the Hindi language which is supposed to consist of current and simple words of any sources whatever and is neither too much biassed in favour of Perso-Arabic elements nor has any place for too much high-flown Sanskritized vocabulary
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Hindi" L1: 322 million (2011 Indian census), including perhaps 150 million speakers of other languages that reported their language as "Hindi" on the census. L2: 274 million (2016, source unknown). Urdu L1: 67 million (2011 & 2017 censuses), L2: 102 million (1999 Pakistan, source unknown, and 2001 Indian census): Ethnologue 21. Hindi at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018). Urdu at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018).
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 อ้างอิงผิดพลาด: ป้ายระบุ <ref> ไม่ถูกต้อง ไม่มีการกำหนดข้อความสำหรับอ้างอิงชื่อ Grierson
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Ray, Aniruddha (2011). The Varied Facets of History: Essays in Honour of Aniruddha Ray (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Primus Books. ISBN 978-93-80607-16-0. There was the Hindustani Dictionary of Fallon published in 1879; and two years later (1881), John J. Platts produced his Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi and English, which implied that Hindi and Urdu were literary forms of a single language. More recently, Christopher R. King in his One Language, Two Scripts (1994) has presented the late history of the single spoken language in two forms, with the clarity and detail that the subject deserves.
  5. Gangopadhyay, Avik (2020). Glimpses of Indian Languages. Evincepub publishing. p. 43. ISBN 9789390197828.
  6. The Central Hindi Directorate regulates the use of Devanagari and Hindi spelling in India. Source: Central Hindi Directorate: Introduction Archived 15 เมษายน 2010 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน
  7. "National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language". www.urducouncil.nic.in.
  8. Zia, K. (1999). Standard Code Table for Urdu Archived 2019-04-08 ที่ เวย์แบ็กแมชชีน. 4th Symposium on Multilingual Information Processing, (MLIT-4), Yangon, Myanmar. CICC, Japan. Retrieved on 28 May 2008.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "About Hindi-Urdu". North Carolina State University. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 15 สิงหาคม 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 9 สิงหาคม 2009.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Mohammad Tahsin Siddiqi (1994), Hindustani-English code-mixing in modern literary texts, University of Wisconsin, ... Hindustani is the lingua franca of both India and Pakistan ...
  11. Britannica, Editors (1 November 2018). "Hindustani language". Encyclopedia Britannica. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 October 2021. (subscription required) lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan. Two variants of Hindustani, Urdu and Hindi, are official languages in Pakistan and India, respectively. Hindustani began to develop during the 13th century CE in and around the Indian cities of Delhi and Meerut in response to the increasing linguistic diversity that resulted from Muslim hegemony. In the 19th century its use was widely promoted by the British, who initiated an effort at standardization. Hindustani is widely recognized as India’s most common lingua franca, but its status as a vernacular renders it difficult to measure precisely its number of speakers.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  12. Trask, R. L., "Hindi-Urdu", Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics, Edinburgh University Press, pp. 149–150, Hindi-Urdu The most important modern Indo-Aryan language, spoken by well over 250 million people, mainly in India and Pakistan. At the spoken level Hindi and Urdu are the same language (called Hindustani before the political partition), but the two varieties are written in different alphabets and differ substantially in their abstract and technical vocabularies
  13. Crystal, David (2001), A Dictionary of Language, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, (p. 115) Figure: A family of languages: the Indo-European family tree, reflecting geographical distribution. Proto Indo-European>Indo-Iranian>Indo-Aryan (Sanskrit)> Midland (Rajasthani, Bihari, Hindi/Urdu); (p. 149) Hindi There is little structural difference between Hindi and Urdu, and the two are often grouped together under the single label Hindi/Urdu, sometimes abbreviated to Hirdu, and formerly often called Hindustani; (p. 160) India ... With such linguistic diversity, Hindi/Urdu has come to be widely used as a lingua franca.
  14. Gandhi, M. K.; Desai, Mahadev (translator); Suhrud, Tridip (annotation) (2018), An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments with Truth: A Critical Edition, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, (p. 737) I was handicapped for want of suitable Hindi or Urdu words. This was my first occasion for delivering an argumentative speech before an audience especially composed of Mussalmans of the North. I had spoken in Urdu at the Muslim League at Calcutta, but it was only for a few minutes, and the speech was intended only to be a feeling appeal to the audience. Here, on the contrary, I was faced with a critical, if not hostile, audience, to whom I had to explain and bring home my view-point. But I had cast aside all shyness. I was not there to deliver an address in the faultless, polished Urdu of the Delhi Muslims, but to place before the gathering my views in such broken Hindi as I could command. And in this I was successful. This meeting afforded me a direct proof of the fact that Hindi-Urdu alone could become the lingua franca<Footnote M8> of India. (M8: "national language" in the Gujarati original).
  15. Also written as हिन्दी-उर्दू
  16. Lydia Mihelič Pulsipher; Alex Pulsipher; Holly M. Hapke (2005), World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-7167-1904-5, ... By the time of British colonialism, Hindustani was the lingua franca of all of northern India and what is today Pakistan ...
  17. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Elsevier. 2010. p. 497. ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4. Hindustani is a Central Indo-Aryan language based on Khari Boli (Khaṛi Boli). Its origin, development, and function reflect the dynamics of the sociolinguistic contact situation from which it emerged as a colloquial speech. It is inextricably linked with the emergence and standardisation of Urdu and Hindi.
  18. อ้างอิงผิดพลาด: ป้ายระบุ <ref> ไม่ถูกต้อง ไม่มีการกำหนดข้อความสำหรับอ้างอิงชื่อ Basu2017
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Gube, Jan; Gao, Fang (2019). Education, Ethnicity and Equity in the Multilingual Asian Context (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-981-13-3125-1. The national language of India and Pakistan 'Standard Urdu' is mutually intelligible with 'Standard Hindi' because both languages share the same Indic base and are all but indistinguishable in phonology and grammar (Lust et al. 2000).
  20. Rahman, Tariq (2011). From Hindi to Urdu: A Social and Political History (PDF). Oxford University Press. p. 99. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม (PDF) เมื่อ 10 October 2014.
  21. "After experiments with Hindi as national language, how Gandhi changed his mind". Prabhu Mallikarjunan. The Feral. 3 October 2019.
  22. Bhat, Riyaz Ahmad; Bhat, Irshad Ahmad; Jain, Naman; Sharma, Dipti Misra (2016). "A House United: Bridging the Script and Lexical Barrier between Hindi and Urdu" (PDF) (ภาษาEnglish). Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 October 2021. Hindi and Urdu transliteration has received a lot of attention from the NLP research community of South Asia (Malik et al., 2008; Lehal and Saini, 2012; Lehal and Saini, 2014). It has been seen to break the barrier that makes the two look different.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 Delacy, Richard; Ahmed, Shahara (2005). Hindi, Urdu & Bengali. Lonely Planet. pp. 11–12. Hindi and Urdu are generally considered to be one spoken language with two different literary traditions. That means that Hindi and Urdu speakers who shop in the same markets (and watch the same Bollywood films) have no problems understanding each other.
  24. The Indo-Aryan languages. Dhanesh Jain, George Cardona. London: Routledge. 2007. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. OCLC 648298147. Such an early date for the inception of a Hindi literature, one made possible only by subsuming the large body of Apabhraṁśa literature into Hindi, has not, however, been generally accepted by scholars (p. 279).CS1 maint: others (link)
  25. Kachru, Yamuna (2006). Hindi. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. The period between 1000 AD-1200/1300 AD is designated the Old NIA stage because it is at this stage that the NIA languages such as Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi assumed distinct identities (p. 1, emphasis added)
  26. Dua, Hans (2008). "Hindustani". ใน Keith Brown; Sarah Ogilvie (บ.ก.). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 497–500. Hindustani as a colloquial speech developed over almost seven centuries from 1100 to 1800 (p. 497, emphasis added).
  27. Chapman, Graham. "Religious vs. regional determinism: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh as inheritors of empire." Shared space: Divided space. Essays on conflict and territorial organization (1990): 106-134.
  28. "Women of the Indian Sub-Continent: Makings of a Culture - Rekhta Foundation" (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Google Arts & Culture. สืบค้นเมื่อ 25 February 2020. The "Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb" is one such instance of the composite culture that marks various regions of the country. Prevalent in the North, particularly in the central plains, it is born of the union between the Hindu and Muslim cultures. Most of the temples were lined along the Ganges and the Khanqah (Sufi school of thought) were situated along the Yamuna river (also called Jamuna). Thus, it came to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb, with the word "tehzeeb" meaning culture. More than communal harmony, its most beautiful by-product was "Hindustani" which later gave us the Hindi and Urdu languages.
  29. Matthews, David John; Shackle, C.; Husain, Shahanara (1985). Urdu literature (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Urdu Markaz; Third World Foundation for Social and Economic Studies. ISBN 978-0-907962-30-4. But with the establishment of Muslim rule in Delhi, it was the Old Hindi of this area which came to form the major partner with Persian. This variety of Hindi is called Khari Boli, 'the upright speech'.
  30. Dhulipala, Venkat (2000). The Politics of Secularism: Medieval Indian Historiography and the Sufis (ภาษาอังกฤษ). University of Wisconsin–Madison. p. 27. Persian became the court language, and many Persian words crept into popular usage. The composite culture of northern India, known as the Ganga Jamuni tehzeeb was a product of the interaction between Hindu society and Islam.
  31. Indian Journal of Social Work, Volume 4 (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Tata Institute of Social Sciences. 1943. p. 264. ... more words of Sanskrit origin but 75% of the vocabulary is common. It is also admitted that while this language is known as Hindustani, ... Muslims call it Urdu and the Hindus call it Hindi. ... Urdu is a national language evolved through years of Hindu and Muslim cultural contact and, as stated by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, is essentially an Indian language and has no place outside.
  32. อ้างอิงผิดพลาด: ป้ายระบุ <ref> ไม่ถูกต้อง ไม่มีการกำหนดข้อความสำหรับอ้างอิงชื่อ Mody2008
  33. Kesavan, B. S. (1997). History Of Printing And Publishing In India (ภาษาอังกฤษ). National Book Trust, India. p. 31. ISBN 978-81-237-2120-0. It might be useful to recall here that Old Hindi or Hindavi, which was a naturally Persian- mixed language in the largest measure, has played this role before, as we have seen, for five or six centuries.
  34. Hans Henrich Hock (1991). Principles of Historical Linguistics (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Walter de Gruyter. p. 475. ISBN 978-3-11-012962-5. During the time of British rule, Hindi (in its religiously neutral, 'Hindustani' variety) increasingly came to be the symbol of national unity over against the English of the foreign oppressor. And Hindustani was learned widely throughout India, even in Bengal and the Dravidian south. ... Independence had been accompanied by the division of former British India into two countries, Pakistan and India. The former had been established as a Muslim state and had made Urdu, the Muslim variety of Hindi–Urdu or Hindustani, its national language.
  35. Masica, Colin P. (1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Cambridge University Press. pp. 430 (Appendix I). ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2. Hindustani - term referring to common colloquial base of HINDI and URDU and to its function as lingua franca over much of India, much in vogue during Independence movement as expression of national unity; after Partition in 1947 and subsequent linguistic polarization it fell into disfavor; census of 1951 registered an enormous decline (86-98 per cent) in no. of persons declaring it their mother tongue (the majority of HINDI speakers and many URDU speakers had done so in previous censuses); trend continued in subsequent censuses: only 11,053 returned it in 1971...mostly from S India; [see Khubchandani 1983: 90-1].
  36. Ashmore, Harry S. (1961). Encyclopaedia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 11 (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 579. The everyday speech of well over 50,000,000 persons of all communities in the north of India and in West Pakistan is the expression of a common language, Hindustani.
  37. Tunstall, Jeremy (2008). The media were American: U.S. mass media in decline (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Oxford University Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-19-518146-3. The Hindi film industry used the most popular street level version of Hindi, namely Hindustani, which included a lot of Urdu and Persian words.
  38. Hiro, Dilip (2015). The Longest August: The Unflinching Rivalry Between India and Pakistan (ภาษาอังกฤษ). PublicAffairs. p. 398. ISBN 978-1-56858-503-1. Spoken Hindi is akin to spoken Urdu, and that language is often called Hindustani. Bollywood's screenplays are written in Hindustani.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Kuiper, Kathleen (2010). The Culture of India (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61530-149-2. Urdu is closely related to Hindi, a language that originated and developed in the Indian subcontinent. They share the same Indic base and are so similar in phonology and grammar that they appear to be one language.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Chatterji, Suniti Kumar; Siṃha, Udaẏa Nārāẏana; Padikkal, Shivarama (1997). Suniti Kumar Chatterji: a centenary tribute (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-0353-2. High Hindi written in Devanagari, having identical grammar with Urdu, employing the native Hindi or Hindustani (Prakrit) elements to the fullest, but for words of high culture, going to Sanskrit. Hindustani proper that represents the basic Khari Boli with vocabulary holding a balance between Urdu and High Hindi.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Draper, Allison Stark (2003). India: A Primary Source Cultural Guide (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-3838-4. People in Delhi spoke Khari Boli, a language the British called Hindustani. It used an Indo-Aryan grammatical structure and numerous Persian "loan-words."
  42. Ahmad, Aijaz (2002). Lineages of the Present: Ideology and Politics in Contemporary South Asia (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Verso. p. 113. ISBN 9781859843581. On this there are far more reliable statistics than those on population. Farhang-e-Asafiya is by general agreement the most reliable Urdu dictionary. It twas compiled in the late nineteenth century by an Indian scholar little exposed to British or Orientalist scholarship. The lexicographer in question, Syed Ahmed Dehlavi, had no desire to sunder Urdu's relationship with Farsi, as is evident even from the title of his dictionary. He estimates that roughly 75 per cent of the total stock of 55,000 Urdu words that he compiled in his dictionary are derived from Sanskrit and Prakrit, and that the entire stock of the base words of the language, without exception, are derived from these sources. What distinguishes Urdu from a great many other Indian languauges ... is that is draws almost a quarter of its vocabulary from language communities to the west of India, such as Farsi, Turkish, and Tajik. Most of the little it takes from Arabic has not come directly but through Farsi.
  43. Dalmia, Vasudha (31 July 2017). Hindu Pasts: Women, Religion, Histories (ภาษาอังกฤษ). SUNY Press. p. 310. ISBN 9781438468075. On the issue of vocabulary, Ahmad goes on to cite Syed Ahmad Dehlavi as he set about to compile the Farhang-e-Asafiya, an Urdu dictionary, in the late nineteenth century. Syed Ahmad 'had no desire to sunder Urdu's relationship with Farsi, as is evident from the title of his dictionary. He estimates that roughly 75 per cent of the total stock of 55.000 Urdu words that he compiled in his dictionary are derived from Sanskrit and Prakrit, and that the entire stock of the base words of the language, without exception, are from these sources' (2000: 112-13). As Ahmad points out, Syed Ahmad, as a member of Delhi's aristocratic elite, had a clear bias towards Persian and Arabic. His estimate of the percentage of Prakitic words in urdu should therefore be considered more conservative than not. The actual proportion of Prakitic words in everyday language would clearly be much higher.
  44. Not considering whether speakers may be bilingual in Hindi and Urdu. "What are the top 200 most spoken languages?". 3 October 2018.
  45. "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 29 June 2018.
  46. Gambhir, Vijay (1995). The Teaching and Acquisition of South Asian Languages (ภาษาอังกฤษ). University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3328-5. The position of Hindi–Urdu among the languages of the world is anomalous. The number of its proficient speakers, over three hundred million, places it in third of fourth place after Mandarin, English, and perhaps Spanish.
  47. อ้างอิงผิดพลาด: ป้ายระบุ <ref> ไม่ถูกต้อง ไม่มีการกำหนดข้อความสำหรับอ้างอิงชื่อ JainCardona2007
  48. Kuczkiewicz-Fraś, Agnieszka (2008). Perso-Arabic Loanwords in Hindustani. Kraków: Księgarnia Akademicka. p. x. ISBN 978-83-7188-161-9.
  49. อ้างอิงผิดพลาด: ป้ายระบุ <ref> ไม่ถูกต้อง ไม่มีการกำหนดข้อความสำหรับอ้างอิงชื่อ mcgregor_912
  50. Kachru, Yamuna (2006), Hindi, John Benjamins Publishing, p. 17, ISBN 90-272-3812-X
  51. "Decoding the Bollywood poster". National Science and Media Museum. 28 February 2013.

Bibliography[แก้]

  • Asher, R. E. 1994. "Hindi." Pp. 1547–49 in The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, edited by R. E. Asher. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4.
  • Bailey, Thomas G. 1950. Teach yourself Hindustani. London: English Universities Press.
  • Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. Indo-Aryan and Hindi (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1992. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language." In Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations, edited by M. G. Clyne. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1994a. "Hindustani." Pp. 1554 in The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, edited by R. E. Asher. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • —— 1994b. "Urdu." Pp. 4863–64 in The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, edited by R. E. Asher. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Rai, Amrit. 1984. A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X

Further reading[แก้]

External links[แก้]

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Waniosa Amedestir/ทดลองเขียน 3 ข้อมูลการท่องเที่ยวจาก วิกิท่องเที่ยว แม่แบบ:EB1911 Poster

ภาษาเปอร์เซียโบราณ (ปรับปรุง)[แก้]

Old Persian
𐎠𐎼𐎹 Ariya
ภูมิภาคAncient Iran
ยุคEvolved into Middle Persian by ป. 300 BCE
ตระกูลภาษา
ระบบการเขียนOld Persian cuneiform
รหัสภาษา
ISO 639-2peo
ISO 639-3peo
นักภาษาศาสตร์peo
บทความนี้มีสัญลักษณ์สัทอักษรสากล หากระบบของคุณไม่รองรับการแสดงผลที่ถูกต้อง คุณอาจเห็นปรัศนี กล่อง หรือสัญลักษณ์อย่างอื่นแทนที่อักขระยูนิโคด

Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan) and is the ancestor of Middle Persian (the language of Sasanian Empire). Like other Old Iranian languages, it was known to its native speakers as ariya (Iranian).[1][2]

Old Persian appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE). Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, Romania (Gherla),[3][4][5] Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt,[6][7] with the most important attestation by far being the contents of the Behistun Inscription (dated to 525 BCE).

Recent research (2007) into the vast Persepolis Fortification Archive at the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago unearthed Old Persian tablets, which suggest Old Persian was a written language in use for practical recording and not only for royal display.[8]

Origin and overview[แก้]

As a written language, Old Persian is attested in royal Achaemenid inscriptions. It is an Iranian language and as such a member of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. The oldest known text written in Old Persian is from the Behistun Inscriptions.[9] Old Persian is one of the oldest Indo-European languages which are attested in original texts.[10]

The oldest date of use of Old Persian as a spoken language is not precisely known. According to certain historical assumptions about the early history and origin of ancient Persians in Southwestern Iran (where Achaemenids hailed from), Old Persian was originally spoken by a tribe called Parsuwash, who arrived in the Iranian Plateau early in the 1st millennium BCE and finally migrated down into the area of present-day Fārs province. Their language, Old Persian, became the official language of the Achaemenid kings.[10] Assyrian records, which in fact appear to provide the earliest evidence for ancient Iranian (Persian and Median) presence on the Iranian Plateau, give a good chronology but only an approximate geographical indication of what seem to be ancient Persians. In these records of the 9th century BCE, Parsuwash (along with Matai, presumably Medians) are first mentioned in the area of Lake Urmia in the records of Shalmaneser III.[11] The exact identity of the Parsuwash is not known for certain, but from a linguistic viewpoint the word matches Old Persian pārsa itself coming directly from the older word *pārćwa.[11] Also, as Old Persian contains many words from another extinct Iranian language, Median, according to P. O. Skjærvø it is probable that Old Persian had already been spoken before the formation of the Achaemenid Empire and was spoken during most of the first half of the first millennium BCE.[10]

Classification[แก้]

ดูบทความหลักที่: Old Iranian languages

Old Persian belongs to the Iranian language family which is a branch of the Indo-Iranian language family, itself within the large family of Indo-European languages. The common ancestors of Indo-Iranians came from Central Asia sometime in the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE. The extinct and unattested Median language is another Old Iranian language related to Old Persian (for example, both are classified as Western Iranian languages and many Median names appeared in Old Persian texts)[12] The group of Old Iranian languages was presumably a large group; however knowledge of it is restricted mainly to Old Persian, Avestan and Median. The former are the only languages in that group which have left written original texts while Median is known mostly from loanwords in Old Persian.[13]

Language evolution[แก้]

By the 4th century BCE, the late Achaemenid period, the inscriptions of Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III differ enough from the language of Darius' inscriptions to be called a "pre-Middle Persian," or "post-Old Persian."[14] Old Persian subsequently evolved into Middle Persian, which is in turn the ancestor of New Persian. Professor Gilbert Lazard, a famous Iranologist and the author of the book Persian Grammar states:[15]

The language known as New Persian, which usually is called at this period (early Islamic times) by the name of Parsi-Dari, can be classified linguistically as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of Sassanian Iran, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids. Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Pashto, etc., Old, Middle and New Persian represent one and the same language at three states of its history. It had its origin in Fars and is differentiated by dialectical features, still easily recognizable from the dialect prevailing in north-western and eastern Iran.

Middle Persian, also sometimes called Pahlavi, is a direct continuation of Old Persian and was used as the written official language of the country.[16][17] Comparison of the evolution at each stage of the language shows great simplification in grammar and syntax. However, New Persian is a direct descendant of Middle and Old Persian.[13]

ในช่วงพุทธศตวรรษที่ 9 ช่วงราชวงศ์อะแคมินิดตอนปลาย จารึกของอาร์ทาเซอร์เซสที่ 2 และที่ 3 มีความแตกต่างจากภาษาที่พบในจารึกของพระเจ้าดาริอุสมหาราชมากพอที่จะเรียกภาษาก่อนเปอร์เซียกลาง หรือภาษาหลังเปอร์เซียโบราณ ภาษาเปอร์เซียโบราณนี้ ต่อมาจะพัฒนาไปเป็นภาษาเปอร์เซียกลาง และจะไปเป็นภาษาเปอร์เซียใหม่อีกทอดหนึ่ง ศาสตราจารย์ Gillbert Lazard นักวิชาการที่มีชื่อเสียงทางด้านวิทยาอิหร่านและเป็นผู้เขียนไวยากรณ์ภาษาเปอร์เซียได้กล่าวไว้ว่า

ภาษาที่เป็นที่รู้จักในปัจจุบันว่าภาษาเปอร์เซียใหม่ซึ่งมักจะเรียกในช่วงแรกของยุคอิสลามว่าภาษาปาร์ซี-ดารีสามารถจำแนกทางภาษาศาสตร์ว่ามีความเชื่อมโยงกับภาษาเปอร์เซียกลาง ซึ่งเป็นภาษาทางราชการและทางศาสนาในอิหร่านยุคซัสซาเนียน ซึ่งมาจากภาษาเปอร์เซียโบราณที่เป็นภาษาในสมัยราชวงศ์อาแคมินิดอีกต่อหนึ่ง ภาษาเปอร์เซียทั้งสามช่วงแสดงความเป็นภาษาเดียวกันอย่างต่อเนื่อง จุดกำเนิดอยู่ที่ฟาร์ และมีความแตกต่างทางด้านลักษณะและสำเนียงที่ชัดเจนจากสำเนียงอื่นๆที่พบทางอิหร่านตะวันตกเฉียงเหนือและตะวันออก

ภาษาเปอร์เซียกลางหรือบางครั้งเรียกภาษาปะห์ลาวี มีการพัฒนาโดยตรงมาจากภาษาเปอร์เซียโบราณ และใช้ในการเขียนอย่างเป็นทางการของประเทศ การเปรียบเทียบพัฒนาการในแต่ละขั้นตอนของภาษาแสดงคงามเหมือนกันทางด้านไวยากรณ์และประโยค


Notes[แก้]

  1. cf. Gershevitch, Ilya (1968). "Old Iranian Literature". Handbuch der Orientalistik, Literatur I. Leiden: Brill. pp. 1–31., p. 2.
  2. Gnoli, Gherardo (2006). "Iranian Identity ii. Pre-Islamic Period". Encyclopædia Iranica. 13. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ... in the Old Persian version, whose language was called "Iranian" or ariya.
  3. Kuhrt 2013, p. 197.
  4. Frye 1984, p. 103.
  5. Schmitt 2000, p. 53.
  6. "Old Persian Texts". Avesta – Zoroastrian Archives.
  7. Kent, R. G. (1950) "Old Persian: Grammar Texts Lexicon", p. 6. American Oriental Society.
  8. "Everyday text shows that Old Persian was probably more commonly used than previously thought". University of Chicago News Office. June 15, 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ September 11, 2010.
  9. Schmitt 2008, pp. 80–81.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Skjærvø 2006, vi(2). Documentation. Old Persian..
  11. 11.0 11.1 Skjærvø 2006, vi(1). Earliest Evidence.
  12. Schmitt 2008, p. 76.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Skjærvø 2006.
  14. Skjærvø 2005.
  15. Lazard, Gilbert (1975). "The Rise of the New Persian Language". ใน Frye, R. N. (บ.ก.). The Cambridge History of Iran. 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 595–632.
  16. Ulrich Ammon; Norbert Dittmar; Klaus J. Mattheier; Peter Trudgill (2006). An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Sociolinguistics. 3 (2nd ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 1912. Middle Persian, also called Pahlavi is a direct continuation of old Persian, and was used as the written official language of the country." "However, after the Moslem conquest and the collapse of the Sassanids, Arabic became the dominant language of the country and Pahlavi lost its importance, and was gradually replaced by Dari, a variety of Middle Persian, with considerable loan elements from Arabic and Parthian.
  17. Bo Utas (2005). "Semitic on Iranian". ใน Éva Ágnes Csató; Bo Isaksson; Carina Jahani (บ.ก.). Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic. Routledge. p. 71. As already mentioned, it is not likely that the scribes of Sassanian chanceries had any idea about the Old Persian cuneiform writing and the language couched in it. Still, the Middle Persian language that appeared in the third century AD may be seen as a continuation of Old Persian

Bibliography[แก้]

  • Brandenstein, Wilhelm (1964), Handbuch des Altpersischen, Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz
  • Hinz, Walther (1966), Altpersischer Wortschatz, Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus
  • Frye, Richard Nelson (1984). Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft: Alter Orient-Griechische Geschichte-Römische Geschichte. Band III,7: The History of Ancient Iran. C.H.Beck. ISBN 978-3406093975.
  • Kent, Roland G. (1953), Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon, New Haven: American Oriental Society
  • Kuhrt, A. (2013). The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. Routledge. ISBN 978-1136016943.
  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas (1996), "Iranian languages", Encyclopedia Iranica, 7, Costa Mesa: Mazda: 238-245
  • Schmitt, Rüdiger (1989), "Altpersisch", ใน R. Schmitt (บ.ก.), Compendium linguarum Iranicarum, Wiesbaden: Reichert: 56–85
  • Schmitt, Rüdiger (2000). The Old Persian Inscriptions of Naqsh-i Rustam and Persepolis. Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum by School of Oriental and African Studies. ISBN 978-0728603141.
  • Schmitt, R. (2008), "Old Persian", ใน Roger D. Woodard (บ.ก.), The Ancient Languages of Asia and the Americas (illustrated ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 76–100, ISBN 978-0521684941
  • Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2005), An Introduction to Old Persian (PDF) (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Harvard
  • Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2006), "Iran, vi. Iranian languages and scripts", Encyclopaedia Iranica, 13
  • Tolman, Herbert Cushing (1908), Ancient Persian Lexicon and the Texts of the Achaemenidan Inscriptions Transliterated and Translated with Special Reference to Their Recent Re-examination, New York/Cincinnati: American Book Company

อ่านเพิ่ม[แก้]

ชินตาโร อิชิฮาระ[แก้]

Shintarō Ishihara
石原 慎太郎
Shintaro Ishihara in 2009
Governor of Tokyo
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
23 April 1999 – 31 October 2012
ก่อนหน้า Yukio Aoshima
ถัดไป Naoki Inose
Minister of Transport
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
6 November 1987 – 27 November 1988
นายกรัฐมนตรี Noboru Takeshita
ก่อนหน้า Ryūtarō Hashimoto
ถัดไป Shinji Satō
Director General of the Environment Agency
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
24 December 1976 – 28 November 1977
นายกรัฐมนตรี Takeo Fukuda
ก่อนหน้า Shigesada Marumo
ถัดไป Hisanari Yamada
Member of the House of Councillors
for National Block
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
8 July 1968 – 25 November 1972
Member of the House of Representatives
for Tokyo 2nd district
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
10 December 1972 – 18 March 1975
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
10 December 1976 – 14 April 1955
Member of the House of Representatives
for Tokyo PR Block
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
11 December 2012 – 21 November 2014
ก่อนหน้า Ichirō Kamoshita
ถัดไป Akihisa Nagashima
ข้อมูลส่วนบุคคล
เกิด 30 กันยายน ค.ศ. 1932 (89 ปี)
Suma-ku, Kobe, Empire of Japan
พรรคการเมือง Liberal Democratic (1968–1973, 1976–1995)
Independent (1973–1976, 1995–2012)
Sunrise (2012)
Japan Restoration (2012–2014)
Future Generations (2014–2015)
ศิษย์เก่า Hitotsubashi University
วิชาชีพ Novelist, author

ญี่ปุ่น: Shintaro Ishiharaโรมาจิ石原 慎太郎ทับศัพท์: Ishihara Shintarō; born 30 September 1932 is a Japanese politician, writer and former actor who was Governor of Tokyo from 1999 to 2012. Being the former leader of the radical right Japan Restoration Party,[1] he is one of the most prominent nationalists in modern Japanese politics.[2][3] He is infamous for his racist remarks, xenophobic views and hatred for the Chinese Communist Party.[4][5]

After an early career as a writer and film director, Ishihara served in the House of Councillors from 1968 to 1972, in the House of Representatives from 1972 to 1995, and as Governor of Tokyo from 1999 to 2012. He resigned from the governorship to briefly co-lead the Sunrise Party, then joined the Japan Restoration Party and returned to the House of Representatives in the 2012 general election.[6] He unsuccessfully sought re-election in the general election of November 2014, and officially left politics the following month.[7]

References[แก้]

  1. Rydgren, Jens (2018). The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right. Oxford University Press. pp. 772–773. ISBN 978-0190274559. สืบค้นเมื่อ August 2, 2020.
  2. Michiyo Nakamoto; Mure Dickie (21 March 2012). "China protests spur Japanese nationalists". Financial Times. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 July 2021.
  3. The Associated Press (17 November 2012). "Ex-Tokyo governor, mayor form own party for national election". CTV News. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 July 2021.
  4. Mizuho Aoki (16 December 2014). "Controversial to the end, Shintaro Ishihara bows out of politics". The Japan Times. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 July 2021.
  5. Kyodo (10 March 2001). "Ishihara slammed for racist remarks". The Japan Times. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 July 2021.
  6. "Ex-Tokyo Gov. Ishihara set to secure lower house seat". Archived from the original on 19 January 2013. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 December 2012.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). Japan Times. 16 December 2012
  7. 引退会見詳報 [Full Report of Retirement Press Conference] (ภาษาญี่ปุ่น). 16 December 2014. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 12 October 2017. สืบค้นเมื่อ 25 January 2016.

External links[แก้]

อะบูซุฟยาน อิบน์ ฮัรบ์[แก้]

สำหรับthe son of companion and first cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ดู Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith
Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
เกิดSakhr ibn Harb ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams
ป. 565
Mecca, Arabia
เสียชีวิตป. {{{3}}} มกราคม ค.ศ. 653 (ข้อผิดพลาดนิพจน์: "{" เป็นอักขระเครื่องหมายวรรคตอนที่ไม่รู้จัก ปี)
Medina, Rashidun Caliphate
อาชีพMajor Chief Of Quraish
มีชื่อเสียงจากLeader of the Quraysh of Mecca
ผู้ดำรงตำแหน่งก่อนAbu Lahab bin Abdul Muttalib
ผู้สืบตำแหน่งPosition Dissolved
คู่สมรส
บุตร
บิดามารดาHarb ibn Umayya
ญาติMuhammad (son-in-law)
วิชาชีพทางทหาร
การยุทธ์Battle of Uhud
Battle of the Trench
Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Yarmouk

Sakhr ibn Harb ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams (อาหรับ: صخر بن حرب بن أمية بن عبد شمس‎, อักษรโรมัน: Ṣakhr ibn Ḥarb ibn Umayya ibn ʿAbd Shams; ป. 565ป. 653), better known by his kunya Abu Sufyan (อาหรับ: أبو سفيان‎, อักษรโรมัน: Abū Sufyān), was a prominent opponent turned companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was a leader and merchant from the Quraysh tribe of Mecca. During his early career, he often led trade caravans to Syria. He had been among the main leaders of Meccan opposition to Muhammad, the prophet of Islam and member of the Quraysh, commanding the Meccans at the battles of Uhud and the Trench in 625 and 627. However, when Muhammad entered Mecca in 630, Abu Sufyan was among the first to submit and was given a stake in the nascent Muslim state, playing a role at the Battle of Hunayn and the subsequent destruction of the polytheistic sanctuary of al-Lat in Ta'if. After Muhammad's death, he may have been appointed the governor of Najran by Caliph Abu Bakr (ค. 632 – 634) for an unspecified period. Abu Sufyan later played a supporting role in the Muslim army at the Battle of Yarmouk against the Byzantines in Syria. His sons Yazid and later Mu'awiya were given command roles in that province and the latter went on to establish the Umayyad Caliphate in 661.

Life[แก้]

Early career[แก้]

Abu Sufyan's given name was Sakhr and he was born in ป. 565 to father Harb ibn Umayya, a leader of the Quraysh tribe of Mecca,[1] and mother Safiyya bint Hazn ibn Bujayr.[ต้องการอ้างอิง] The family belonged to the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraysh,[1] the brother clan of the Banu Hashim, to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged. Abu Sufyan was among the leaders of the Qurayshi opposition to Muhammad in the years preceding the Hijrah (emigration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622). A prominent financier and merchant, Abu Sufyan engaged in trade in Syria, often heading Meccan caravans to the region.[1] He owned land in the vicinity of Damascus.[2][3]

Opposition to Islam[แก้]

In 624, a caravan Abu Sufyan was leading back to Mecca from Syria faced an assault by Muhammad, prompting him to send for aid.[1] In response, a 1,000-strong Meccan army led by Abu Jahl was dispatched.[1] In the ensuing confrontation, Abu Sufyan, "by skillful and vigorous leadership eluded the Muslims", according to the historian W. Montgomery Watt.[1] However, under Abu Jahl's command, the Meccans pursued a direct confrontation with the Muslims, which resulted in the rout of the Quraysh at the Battle of Badr. Abu Jahl and the father of Abu Sufyan's wife, Utbah ibn Rabi'ah, were slain. Abu Sufyan's son Hanzala was also killed and another son, Amr, was taken captive, but released.[1] In the aftermath, Abu Sufyan was charged with avenging Meccan losses, the command he held likely being hereditary. He inflicted significant losses on the Muslims at the Battle of Uhud in 625, but the Quraysh were generally unsatisfied with the battle's results.[1] Two years later, he led the attempted siege of Medina, but was defeated by the Muslim defenders at the Battle of the Trench.[1] His morale may have taken a blow from this failure, as Meccan command in the war with Muhammad passed to his Qurayshi rivals, Safwan ibn Umayya, Ikrima ibn Abi Jahl and Suhayl ibn Amr.[1]

Conversion to Islam[แก้]

Though he did not participate in the truce negotiations at Hudaybiyya in 628, he held peace talks with Muhammad in Medina when allies of the Quraysh apparently broke the truce.[1] Information about the results of these talks is unclear, but Watt surmises that Abu Sufyan and Muhammad entered into an understanding of sorts.[1] When Muhammad conquered Mecca in 630, Abu Sufyan played a key role in the city's surrender, being among the first Qurayshi leaders to submit and guaranteeing protection for his partisans.[1] He fought alongside the Muslims at the Battle of Hunayn against the Banu Thaqif of Ta'if, traditional rivals of Mecca, and the latter's tribal backers from the Hawazin confederation.[1] During this battle, which ended in a decisive Muslim victory, he lost an eye, and was rewarded a relatively high percentage of the spoils for his valor.[1] Because of his past trade relations with Ta'if, where he also owned property and had kinsmen, Abu Sufyan played a leading role in the dismantlement of the pagan sanctuary of al-Lat in the city.[1]

Later life and death[แก้]

Abu Sufyan was appointed the governor of Najran, in southern Arabia, either by Muhammad or more likely, by the first caliph, Abu Bakr (ค. 632 – 634).[1] He initially opposed the latter's succession of Muhammad as leader of the nascent Muslim state.[1] Abu Sufyan, seeing no hope that a member of the Banu Abd Shams could attain the role, aimed to keep the leadership in the hands of his next closest kinsmen, the Banu Hashim, specifically Ali ibn Abi Talib, a cousin, son-in-law and early supporter of Muhammad.[4] According to the historian Wilferd Madelung, Abu Sufyan, by dint of his chieftainship of the Banu Abd Shams and the generosity he had received from Muhammad, was duty-bound by a tribal code of honor to offer Ali such support, as doing otherwise "would have been shameful".[4] Ali, however, refused his support, citing Abu Sufyan's late conversion to Islam and the potential backlash from the Muslim community should he accept his backing.[5] Western historians generally dismiss this episode as propaganda by the Muslim traditional sources, which were traditionally hostile to the Umayyads,[6] the branch of the Banu Abd Shams to which Abu Sufyan belonged and which ultimately became the ruling family of the Caliphate in 661 until 750.

Abu Bakr ordered the Muslim conquest of the Levant, in which he gave the Banu Abd Shams a stake, despite their early opposition to him, which he sought to allay.[2] Abu Sufyan's son Yazid was ultimately appointed to a leading command role in the conquest. Abu Sufyan was present at the Battle of Yarmouk, which resulted in a decisive Muslim victory against the Byzantines in Syria. His advanced age at the time renders it unlikely that he actively participated in the battle.[1] According to an account cited by Sayf ibn Umar, he observed the battle alongside unspecified Arab sheikhs (chieftains), and accounts cited by al-Tabari further note that he "exhorted" the Muslim troops.[7] His son Yazid held a command role in the battle and later died in a plague in Palestine in 639.[1] Another of his sons, Mu'awiya, was appointed the governor of Syria by Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab (ค. 634 – 644). Umar's successor, Uthman ibn Affan (ค. 644 – 656), shared descent with Abu Sufyan from Umayya ibn Abd Shams and was known to show special favor to his kinsmen. To that end, he symbolically honored Abu Sufyan, along with al-Hakam ibn Abi al-As and al-Walid ibn Uqba of the Umayyad line of the Banu Abd Shams, and al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib of the Banu Hashim, by allowing them to sit on his throne in Medina.[8] Abu Sufyan died in 653 at the age of 88.[1]

Family[แก้]

Family tree of the Sufyanid ruling family of the Umayyad Caliphate. The Sufyanids were the descendants of Abu Sufyan

Wives and children[แก้]

  1. Ṣāfiya bint Abi al-As.
    1. Ramla (Umm Ḥabība). She first married Ubayd-Allah ibn Jahsh, by whom she had one daughter, Ḥabība bint Ubayd Allah. After Ubayd Allah's death, she married Muhammad.
    2. Umayma. She first married Huwaytib ibn Abd al-Uzza, by whom she had one son called Abu Sufyan.[9]:169
  2. Zaynab bint Nawfal of the Kinana.[10]
    1. Yazīd.
  3. Hind bint Utba.
    1. Hanzala (killed in the Battle of Badr). Hind refers to Hanzala as her "firstborn".[11]:313,337,385
    2. Mu'awiya I.
    3. Utba. He is said to have been born "in the time of the Prophet," i.e., after 610.[12] He had a son named al-Walīd.
    4. Juwayriya. Her first husband was al-Sayib ibn Abi Hubaysh. Her second husband was Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Harith.[9]:169
    5. Umm Hakam. She married Abd Allah ibn Uthman al-Thaqafi, by whom she had one son, Abd al-Rahman.[9][13]
  4. Safiya bint Abi Amr ibn Umayya.
    1. Amr (taken captive in the Battle of Badr and later released).[11]:313
    2. Hind. She married al-Harith ibn Nawfal, by whom she had six children: Abd Allah, Muhammad al-Akbar, Rabi'a, Abd al-Rahman, Ramla and Umm al-Zubayr.[9]:169
    3. Sakhra. She married Sayyid ibn al-Akhnas and is said to have had children by him.[9]:169
  5. Lubaba bint Abi al-As.
    1. Maymuna (Amina). She married Urwa ibn Mas'ud al-Thaqafi, and bore him at least one son, Dawud.[11]:589 Her second husband was al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba.[9]:169
  6. Atiqa bint Abi Udhayhir[11]:189 of the Daws tribe.[14]:220
    1. Anbasa.[14]:220

Other children: Ḥārith,[15] Al-Faraa,[11]:214 Azzah.[16]

See also[แก้]

References[แก้]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 Watt 1960, p. 151.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Madelung 1997, p. 45.
  3. Donner 1981, p. 96.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Madelung 1997, p. 40.
  5. Madelung 1997, pp. 40–41.
  6. Madelung 1997, p. 41.
  7. Donner 1981, p. 362.
  8. Madelung 1997, p. 109.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Muhammad ibn Saad, Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  10. Ibn Hajar. Al-Isaba vol. 6 p. 658 #9271.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  12. Ibn Hajar. Al-Isaba vol. 5 p. 60 #6248.
  13. "Hadith - Book of Divorce - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 2020-11-25.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Morony, M. G. (1987). Volume 18: Between Civil Wars: The Caliphate of Mu'awiyah. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  15. Nasa'i vol. 2 #1814.
  16. Muslim 8:3413.

Bibliography[แก้]

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