ประเทศอำนาจปานกลาง

จากวิกิพีเดีย สารานุกรมเสรี

ประเทศอำนาจปานกลาง (อังกฤษ: middle power) หมายถึง รัฐซึ่งมีความสามารถที่จะแผ่อิทธิพลในระดับภูมิภาค ซึ่งแม้จะไม่ใช่ทั้งอภิมหาอำนาจหรือมหาอำนาจ แต่ก็มีความสามารถในการแผ่อิทธิพลในภูมิภาคของตนเอง

รายชื่อประเทศอำนาจปานกลาง[แก้]

ปัจจุบันทั่วโลกเชื่อว่าประเทศมหาอำนาจในปัจจุบันมีอยู่ 5 ประเทศ แต่ก็ยังมีบางส่วนที่เชื่อว่าญี่ปุ่นและเยอรมนี ไม่ใช้ประเทศอำนาจปานกลาง แต่เป็นประเทศมหาอำนาจ

อ้างอิง[แก้]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Mace G, Belanger L (1999) The Americas in Transition: The Contours of Regionalism (p 153)
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 Solomon S (1997) South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership, ISS
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Inoguchi K (2002) The UN Disarmament Conference in Kyote
  4. 4.0 4.1 Wurst J (2006) Middle Powers Initiative Briefing Paper, GSI
  5. Cooper AF (1997) Niche Diplomacy - Middle Powers after the Cold War, palgrave
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Bernard Wood, 'Towards North-South Middle Power Coalitions', in Middle Power Internationalism: The North-South Dimension, edited by Cranford Pratt (Montreal, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1990).
  7. Patience A (2004) State Society and Governance in Melanesia, ANU
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Buzan, Barry (2004). The United States and the Great Powers. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-7456-3375-7. 
  9. Hazleton WA (2005) Middle Power Bandwagoning? Australia's Security Relationship with the United States, allacademic
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Yasmi Adriansyah, 'Questioning Indonesia's place in the world', Asia Times (20 September 2011): 'Countries often categorized as middle power (MP) include Australia, Canada and Japan. The reasons for this categorization are the nations' advanced political-economic stature as well as their significant contribution to international cooperation and development. India and Brazil have recently become considered middle powers because of their rise in the global arena—particularly with the emerging notion of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China).'
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Tobias Harris, 'Japan Accepts its "Middle-Power" Fate'. Far Eastern Economic Review Vol. 171, No. 6 (2008), p. 45: 'Japan is settling into a position as a middle power in Asia, sitting uneasily between the U.S., its security ally, and China, its most important economic partner. In this it finds itself in a situation similar to Australia, India, South Korea and the members of Asean.'
  12. Caplan G (2006) From Rwanda to Darfur: Lessons learned?, SudanTribune
  13. Ferguson RJ (2002) Brazil: An Emerging, Revisionist 'Great Power'?, International Relations
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Heine J (2006) On the Manner of Practising the New Diplomacy, ISN
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Gladys Lechini, Middle Powers: IBSA and the New South-South Cooperation. NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol. 40, No. 5 (2007): 28-33: 'Today, a new, more selective South-South cooperation has appeared, bringing some hope to the people of our regions. The trilateral alliance known as the India, Brazil, and South Africa Dialogue Forum, or IBSA, exemplifies the trend … The three member countries face the same problems and have similar interests. All three consider themselves "middle powers" and leaders of their respective regions, yet they have also been subject to pressures from the North.'
  16. Daniel Flemes, Emerging Middle Powers' Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspective of the IBSA Dialogue Forum. Hamburg: GIGA, 2007.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 Andrew F. Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M. Shaw, 'Lessons from/for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?', International Studies Review, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp. 675, 687.
  18. อ้างอิงผิดพลาด: ป้ายระบุ <ref> ไม่ถูกต้อง ไม่มีข้อความใดให้ไว้สำหรับอ้างอิงชื่อ Jordaan
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Behringer RM (2005) Middle Power Leadership on the Human Security Agenda, SAGE
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 Pratt C (1990) Middle Power Internationalism, MQUP
  21. Crosby AD (1997) A Middle-Power Military in Alliance: Canada and NORAD, JSTOR
  22. Petersen K (2003) Quest to Reify Canada as a Middle Power, Dissident Voice
  23. 23.0 23.1 Ploughshares Monitor (1997) Scrapping the Bomb: The role of middle power countries
  24. Otte M, Greve J (2000) A Rising Middle Power?: German Foreign Policy in Transformation, 1989-1999, St. Martin's Press
  25. Sperling J (2001) Neither Hegemony nor Dominance: Reconsidering German Power in Post Cold-War Europe, CUP
  26. Thanos Veremēs (1997)(http://books.google.ca/books/about/The_military_in_Greek_politics.html?id=sn-yAAAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y)," Black Rose Books"
  27. Higgott RA, Cooper AF (1990) Middle Power Leadership and Coalition Building
  28. Charalampos Efstathopoulosa, 'Reinterpreting India's Rise through the Middle Power Prism', Asian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 19, Issue 1 (2011), p. 75: 'India's role in the contemporary world order can be optimally asserted by the middle power concept. The concept allows for distinguishing both strengths and weakness of India's globalist agency, shifting the analytical focus beyond material-statistical calculations to theorise behavioural, normative and ideational parameters.'
  29. Robert W. Bradnock, India's Foreign Policy since 1971 (The Royal Institute for International Affairs, London: Pinter Publishers, 1990), quoted in Leonard Stone, 'India and the Central Eurasian Space', Journal of Third World Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2007, p. 183: 'The U.S. is a superpower whereas India is a middle power. A superpower could accommodate another superpower because the alternative would be equally devastating to both. But the relationship between a superpower and a middle power is of a different kind. The former does not need to accommodate the latter while the latter cannot allow itself to be a satellite of the former."
  30. Jan Cartwright, 'India's Regional and International Support for Democracy: Rhetoric or Reality?', Asian Survey, Vol. 49, No. 3 (May/June 2009), p. 424: 'India’s democratic rhetoric has also helped it further establish its claim as being a rising “middle power.” (A "middle power" is a term that is used in the field of international relations to describe a state that is not a superpower but still wields substantial influence globally. In addition to India, other "middle powers" include, for example, Australia and Canada.)'
  31. 31.0 31.1 Jonathan H. Ping, Middle Power Statecraft: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Asia Pacific (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2005).
  32. Anoushiravan Ehteshami and Raymond Hinnesbusch, Syria and Iran: Middle Power in a Penetrated Regional System (London: Routledge, 1997).
  33. Nayef H. Samhat, 'Middle Powers and American Foreign Policy: Lessons for Irano-U.S. Relations, Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 28, No. 1 (2000), pp. 11-26.
  34. Ahouie M (2004) Iran Analysis Quarterly, MIT
  35. Foreign Affairs Committee (2006) Iran
  36. Robert W. Cox, 'Middlepowermanship, Japan, and Future World Order, International Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4 (1989), pp. 823-862.
  37. Er LP (2006) Japan's Human Security Role in Southeast Asia
  38. Soeya Yoshihide, 'Diplomacy for Japan as a Middle Power, Japan Echo, Vol. 35, No. 2 (2008), pp. 36-41.
  39. Kim R. Nossal and Richard Stubbs, 'Mahathir's Malaysia: An Emerging Middle Power?' in Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).
  40. Louis Belanger and Gordon Mace, 'Middle Powers and Regionalism in the Americas: The Cases of Argentina and Mexico', in Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).
  41. 41.0 41.1 Pierre G. Goad, 'Middle Powers to the Rescue?', Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol. 163, No. 24 (2000), p. 69.
  42. Pellicer O (2006) Mexico – a Reluctant Middle Power?, FES
  43. 43.0 43.1 Spence JE (2005) The End of South Africa’s Honeymoon, Project Syndicate
  44. อ้างอิงผิดพลาด: ป้ายระบุ <ref> ไม่ถูกต้อง ไม่มีข้อความใดให้ไว้สำหรับอ้างอิงชื่อ MPI
  45. Barry Buzan (2004). The United States and the great powers: world politics in the twenty-first century. Polity. pp. 71, 99. ISBN 978-0-7456-3374-9. สืบค้นเมื่อ 27 December 2011. 
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 Jonathan H. Ping Middle Power Statecraft (p 104)
  47. 47.0 47.1 Spero, Joshua (2004). Bridging the European Divide. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 206. ISBN 9780742535534. ISBN 0-7425-3553-3. 
  48. Kirton J (2006) Harper’s Foreign Policy Success?
  49. 49.0 49.1 according to Yves Lacoste, Géopolitique, Larousse, 2009,p. 134, both Spain and Portugal exert a real influence in Africa and in the Americas.
  50. Loo BF (2005) Transforming Singapore's Military Security Landscape: Problems and Prospects, allacademic
  51. Tan ATH (1999) Singapore's Defence: Capabilities, Trends, and Implications, questia
  52. Peter Vale, 'South Africa: Understanding the Upstairs and the Downstairs', in Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).
  53. Janis Van Der Westhuizen, 'South Africa's Emergence as a Middle Power', Third World Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3 (1998), pp. 435-455.
  54. Pfister R (2006) The Apartheid Republuc and African States, H-Net
  55. Eduard Jordaan, 'Barking at the Big Dogs: South Africa's Foreign Policy Towards the Middle East', Round Table, Vol. 97, No. 397 (2008), pp. 547-549.
  56. Armstrong DF (1997) South Korea's foreign policy in the post-Cold War era: A middle power perspective
  57. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a778948388~tab=send
  58. http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=44821
  59. Gilbert Rozman, 'South Korea and Sino-Japanese Rivalry: A Middle Power's Options Within the East Asia Core Triangle', Pacific Review, Vol. 20, No. 2 (2007), pp. 197-220.
  60. Woosang Kim, 'Korea as a Middle Power in Northeast Asian Security, in The United States and Northeast Asia: Debates, Issues, and New Order, edited by G. John Ikenbgerry and Chung-in Moon (Lantham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008).
  61. http://www.spfusa.org/program/avs/2008/2008_south_korea_power.htm
  62. http://www.nautilus.org/fora/security/08034Robertson.html
  63. Sheridan, Greg (27 November 2008). "The plucky country and the lucky country draw closer". The Australian. 
  64. Rudengren J, Gisle P, Brann K (1995) Middle Power Clout: Sweden And The Development Banks
  65. Meltem Myftyler and Myberra Yyksel, 'Turkey: A Middle Power in the New Order', in Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).
  66. Adam Chapnick, The Middle Power 1999.
  67. ASEAN